This study was on effect of rapid population growth on the economy. Three objectives were raised which included: To examine the concept of population growth, to examine the concept of population and population growth, to examine the effects of population growth and to proffer solution to the negative effect of population growth. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from residents in Okitipupa Local Government Area. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).
Chapter One Background of Study
The world is in the midst of demographic explosion and unless the trend is arrested mankind is heading towards catastrophe, many people believed that it is a law of nature that all population at all time tend to go on expanding until they reach the limits of substance. Population traps as predicted by Rev. Thomas R. Malthus in 1789 states that man is heading towards self-destruction and also in 1998 according to Malthus in regard to the increase in population growth he argues that human being like plants and animals are forced to increase their population by the urge to reproduce. If there are no constraints on this propensity to reproduce human being will continue to increase their species.
It is a universal fact that the most valuable asset of a nation is her population of only adequate policies are formulated to improve the quality of life of the people and their potentials harnesses towards sustainable national growth and development. The chapter is an attempt to show that rapid growth in population has an adverse effect on Nigeria economy a case study of Okitipupa Local Government.
Chapter Two Literature Review
A review of literature on population and economic growth suggests that a number of studies have been performed in Nigeria and other countries of the world. For example, Tartiyus, Dauda and Peter (2015) evaluated the impact of population growth on economic growth in Nigeria from 1980 to 2010 given that the impact of population growth on economic growth has always been a subject of disagreement among economists and given Nigeria’s high rate of population growth. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics as well as regression analysis. The result revealed that there is a positive relationship between economic growth (proxy by GDP growth) and population, fertility and export growth while negative relationships were found between economic growth (proxy by GDP growth) and life expectancy, and crude death rate. Similarly, it was recommended among others that the average population growth rate of Nigeria should be maintained since it is found to impact positively on economic growth in Nigeria within the period of study and that measures should be adopted to check the crude death rate of Nigeria as it affects economic growth negatively. Considering the case of Mexico, Garza-Rodriguez, Andrade-Velasco, Martinez-Silva, Renteria-Rodriguez & Vallejo-Castillo (2016) analyze the dynamic relationship between population growth and economic development, through a structural break cointegration analysis for the period 1960-2014.
The Gregory-Hansen cointegration test confirmed the existence of a long run equilibrium. Based on the results of this test, using 1985 as the year in which the structural break occurs in the cointegrating equation and therefore the inclusion of a dummy variable for this year in the VECM developed in the paper, 8 results obtained suggested that in the short run, economic growth has a negative effect on population growth, while in the long run, population has a positive effect on per capita GDP and per capita GDP also positively affects population. Contextually, Dao (2012) examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of fortythree developing countries, the least-squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression was applied. The findings suggest that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollinearity among explanatory variables, it was found that per capita GDP growth linearly depends on population growth, the old dependency ratio, the mortality rate, and the interactions between population growth and both the young and old dependency ratios, between population growth and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year, and the interaction term between the young dependency ratio and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Shaari, Rahim and Rashid (2013) examined relationship among population, energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia from 1991 to 2011.
Chapter Three Research Design
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
Chapter Four Data Analysis
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.
Chapter Five Summary and Conclusion
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain effect of rapid population growth on the economy. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the effect of rapid population growth on the economy.
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