Effect of Rural Urban Migration on Agricultural Production
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study was to determine the effects of rural-urban migration on agricultural production in Umuahia North Local Government Area. The specific objectives were to:
- To identify the socio-economic characteristics of the people of Umuahia North Local Government Area.
- To ascertain the causes of rural-urban migration in Umuahia North Local Government Area
- To examine the involvement of youths in agricultural production in Umuahia North Local Government Area;
- To find out the various activities engaged by rural youths in the study area.
- To determine the effects of rural urban migration on agricultural production.
- To examine the problems of rural-urban migration;
- To make necessary recommendations based on the findings.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Although many factors have been associated with the poor performance of agricultural production in Nigeria, but one of its major factors is the rural-urban migration (especially by youths) which involves the shifting of labour force from rural areas to urban centers, in search of employment, better living standard, freedom of religion and others too numerous to mention, one of the factor affecting rural urban pattern of migration is the shortage of agricultural. Labour supply needed for agricultural production (White, 2000). Bull (2001) pointed out that the rural-urban pattern of migration takes more young men than women out of the rural areas, resulting in many women becoming the heads of the household and being responsible for agricultural production.
Rural-urban youth migration can be seen as the physical transnational of young individuals or group of young people from rural areas to urban centers. Rural-urban youth migration is the most important aspect of labour migration because it affects the structures and composition of the population. Rural youth migration as noted by several writers (Olayide, 2009; Lewis, 2004; Osondu and Ibezim, 2001) have been associated with decline in food production, farming activities, fishing, urban congestion, inadequate infrastructural facilities in urban areas and so on. The decline in food production in developing countries such as Nigeria can be linked to the impart of rural-urban youth migration as well as other variable factors such as economic, soil quality, ecology, climatic conditions, sociocultural setting and poor farm management. With the mass migration of youths from rural to urban areas, only few youths are left behind, consequently the cost of labour has been on the increase
From inception, Nigeria was an agricultural economy, then agricultural sector was contributing about 80% of the total Nigeria export. Then about 75% of Nigeria total population live in the rural areas and obtain their means of livelihood from agriculture. But ironically, this sector has been doing badly in the past few years for example, in 1965 agricultural exports accounted for as much as 76% of the Nigeria foreign earnings, 43% in 1970 while the contribution falls to about 6% in 1976, 3.9% in 1989 and 1.4% in 1992. Among the factors responsible for the decline of agricultural production is the case of rural-urban migration which involves the movement of (especially the youths) from the rural areas to the urban areas in search of better living such as employment opportunities conducive environment etc. since the youths, who constitute the labour force in the rural areas, are actively involved in the rural-urban migration. Therefore there will be a shift of labour force to the urban centers. With the incessant migration of the youth to the urban area, a greater gap in the rural labour force will be created. Aniocha weekly reported that in 2010, 20,000kg of maize grain was sold in Oyoko local market when the number of rural urban migrants is 80. Then in 2011, 12,000k of maize grains was sold in the same local market, when the recorded number of rural-urban migrant is put at 10, from the above, it is therefore obvious that there exist a relationship between rural-urban migration and agricultural production.
Migration is defined as the movement of people from one place to another in search of employment, market, education, health and other means of livelihood. The movement can be temporary or permanent. They are of the opinion that “Migration occurs as a response to economic development as well as social, cultural, environmental and political factors and effects on areas of origin as destination (Chikaire, Nnadi, Atoma, Egwuonwu, Echetama, 2012). In Nigeria and many developing countries, there has been rapid growth of cities at the detriment of the rural areas. The rural population is gradually shrinking, while the urban population is blooming. They found that “Nigeria is a typical example of a country, where there had been a tremendous expansion of urban areas consequent to the rapid rural migration (Chikaire et al, 2012, P.1)”. The large number of able-bodied men and women moving to the cities is at an alarming rate. The intention of the movement varies; some migrate to the urban centers in search of job, while others migrate to enjoy basic amenities that are lacking in the rural areas. Unfortunately, there is no expansion or improvement on the basic amenities in the cities to meet with the increasing demand of the growing population.
This chapter deals with the method used in collecting data required in carrying out this research work it explains the procedures that were followed and the instrument used in collecting data.
SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION
Data were collected from two main sources namely:
- Primary source and
- Secondary source
These are materials of statistical investigation which were collected by the research for a particular purpose. They can be obtained through a survey, observation questionnaire or as experiment, the researcher has adopted the questionnaire method for this study.
These are data from textbook Journal handset etc. they arise as byproducts of the same other purposes. Example administration, various other unpublished works and write ups were also used.
PRESENTATION ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Efforts will be made at this stage to present, analyze and interpret the data collected during the field survey. This presentation will be based on the responses from the completed questionnaires. The result of this exercise will be summarized in tabular forms for easy references and analysis. It will also show answers to questions relating to the research questions for this research study. The researcher employed simple percentage in the analysis.
The data collected from the respondents were analyzed in tabular form with simple percentage for easy understanding.
A total of 133 (one hundred and thirty three) questionnaires were distributed and 133 questionnaires were returned.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is pertinent to note that this research was aimed at addressing the problems associated with migration on agricultural growth in the country, thus the topic “effect of rural urban migration on agricultural production in Nigeria”.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges associated with rural urban migration on agricultural production.
The study was structured to measure the impact of rural-urban migration on agricultural production in Umuahia North Local Government Area, Nigeria from the perception of the non-migrant farmers left behind in the area. The specific research questions were as follows; what are the factors that influence out-migration in Umuahia North Local Government Area into the urban areas? What is the relationship between out-migration and agricultural labour availability in rural areas of Umuahia North Local Government Area? What is the relationship between out-migration and agricultural land accessibility or availability in Umuahia North Local Government Area? What is the relationship between outmigration food availability and level of farm income in Umuahia North Local Government Area? The research design that was adopted for the study was largely quantitative with survey as the main method of data collection. The sample size was made up of 200 farmers within the Umuahia North Local Government Area. Determining the sample population involved the multistage sampling procedure. Results on the demographic characteristics of the farmers showed that majority of the respondents were within the middle ages. The findings also indicated that the farming industry is male dominated. Only a few of the respondents had some level of education ranging from the basic level to the tertiary level. The results also show that majority of the respondents were married with only a few being single. Majority of the married ones had a varied number of children ranging from 1 to 10 or more.
- Adegboye, M.A, Eniolorunda, P.A and Awe, O.A. 2008. Constraints to effective fertilizer utilization by maize farmers in Ido local government area, Oyo State. In: Proceedings of 42nd Annual Conference of Agricultural Society of Nigeria, p. 871.
- Afshar, R. (2003). “Dynamics of Poverty, Development and Population Mobility: The Bangladesh Case.” Ad Hoc Expert Group Meeting on Migration and Development, organized by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, 27-29 August.
- Agesa, R. & Kim, S. (2001). Rural to Urban Migration as Household Decision: Evidence from Kenya. Review of Development Economics. (5) 60-75.
- Abdullahi, Y. A. (1985). The New Technology and Agricultural Development in Nigeria. A Socio-political Assessment of the Green Revolution Strategy. Rural Underdevelopment in Nigeria 1900 – 1980. Zaria: Publication of the Department of Political Science ABU. Pp 58 – 66
- Adepoju, A. (1979). Migration and Socio-Economic Change in Africa: Policy and Research. International Social Science Journal. Vol. 31, No. 2 Pp 104 -105
- Bamgboye, A. and Jekayinga, S. O. (2006). Energy Consumption Pattern in Palm Kernel Processing Operations. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR e-journal. Manuscript EE05013. Vol. VIII, March.
- Bates, C. (2001). Introduction: Community and Identity among South Asians in Diaspora. In Bates, C. (ed.), Community, Empire and Migration: South Asians in Diaspora. Orient Longman, New Delhi. Pp 1 – 45
- Badru, F. A. (2004). Urbanization, Family and Social Changes in Nigeria: 1950-1999. In Industrialization, Urbanization and Development in Nigeria 1950-1999. Edited by M. O. A. Adejugbe. Concept Publications Limited. pp. 31-34.