Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Effect of Soaking Time on the Antinutrients and Sensory Qualities of Sorghum of “Soy-Ogi-Baba”

Effect of Soaking Time on the Antinutrients and Sensory Qualities of Sorghum of “Soy-Ogi-Baba”

Effect of Soaking Time on the Antinutrients and Sensory Qualities of Sorghum of “Soy-Ogi Baba”

Chapter One

The objective of the Study

Therefore, the present study is aimed at producing “soy-ogi baba” with different levels of soybean supplementation coupled with the assessment of the antinutritional components and consumer acceptability of the different formulations.



Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

Sorghum (Sorghum L. Moench) also known as guinea corn in West Africa and locally called Okababa, Dawa, and Okili in Nigeria belongs to the tribe Andropogonae (FAO, 1995). It is the fifth most important cereal crop by acreage after wheat, rice, maize, and barley globally; it is cultivated on marginal, fragile drought-prone environments in the semi-arid tropics of Africa and Asia, and it is a crop genetically suited to hot and dry agro ecologies where it is difficult to grow other food grains (ICRISAT, 2004).  Sorghum has a fibrous root system that could penetrate up to 8 feet into the soil and that makes it one of the hardiest cereals.

Sorghum is one of the oldest known grains of Africa and India where it is commonly used in a variety of foods. From tonnage perspective, sorghum is the second most important cereal in Africa; its production has increased significantly over the past 40 years from 10 million metric tonnes to 26 million metric tonnes (FAO, 1995). Nigeria and Sudan produces about 63% of Africa’s total production (FAO, 1995). Grain sorghum is the most commonly cultivated agronomic type of sorghum worldwide, and in Africa, it is a very important part of the diet which could be in the form of boiled porridge or gruel, unleavened bread, and rice-like products (Berenji and Dahlberg, 2004). Sorghum is one of the most important staples in the semi-arid tropics of Africa and Asia; it is the principal source of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals for millions of the poorest in these regions (FAO, 1995). However, human consumption is decreasing with enhanced socioeconomic status of population in general and easy availability of much preferred cereals in abundance and at affordable prices (Sheorain et al., 2000).

Sorghum is a global crop; it is known as kafferkoren, soedangrass, and suikergient in the Netherlands, mtatam, shallu or feterita in East Africa, kaoliang in China, durra in Egypt, chicken corn or guinea corn in the United Kingdom, milo in Middle East Africa, jola, jowa, cholam, bisinga or durra in India, kaffir corn in South Africa, sorgo, milo or sudan-grass in USA and guinea corn, feterita, sorghum, or sorgho in West Africa (Dicko et al., 2006).

Sorghum and Nutrition

Sorghum grain has 95 to 98% of the nutritional value of maize; vitamin content for corn and sorghum is similar but sorghum has a higher mineral content than maize (Balota, 2012). Sorghum grain has a lot of nutritional benefits due to its rich antioxidant properties (Green, 2012). It is higher in protein (11.5 to 16.5%) and calories than several other grains (Martin and MacMasters, 2000). One cup serving (100 g) of sorghum contain 143 g of carbohydrate and 326 calories most of which comes from carbohydrate, 12 g of dietary fibre, and would provide 47% of the recommended daily value for iron based on a 2,000 calorie intake (Thompson, 2010). 100 g (one cup serving) of sorghum contains 325 calories and has 10.8 mg of protein, 0 mg of sugar, 3.1 mg of fat, 6.0 mg of fibre and 0 mg of cholesterol. Sorghum contains the following vitamins and minerals: vitamins B1, B2 and B3, calcium (Ca), potassium (K), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), and sodium (Na). 100 g (one cup serving) would provide 55% Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of phosphorus, 19% RDA of potassium, 47% RDA of iron, 5.4% RDA of calcium and 0.5% RDA of sodium.

Although, the grain is low in sodium, it has a large amount of iron and a 100 g serving would meet over 50% of the recommended intake of iron for men and 24% for women; this is more iron than that in equal amount of brown rice (Thompson, 2010). Protein is one of the major components of sorghum; the primary function of dietary protein is to satisfy the body’s need for nitrogen and essential amino acid (FAO, 1995). The average starch content of sorghum is 69.5% (Thompson, 2010), and the crude fat content is 3% which is higher than wheat and rice (FAO, 1995). It contains no cholesterol, and like all other grains, has a fairly good amount of carbohydrates that could meet a good deal of recommended daily intake (Thompson, 2010).

Sorghum strengthens the immune system, helps in the elimination of toxic waste from the body, increases endurance, assists in blood cell building, boost appetite, relieves diarrhoea, aids rapid recovery, stimulates cardio-vascular system, stimulates free flow of blood, and lowers cholesterol levels. Sorghum consumption reduces the risk of certain types of cancer in humans (Yang et al., 2009). The tannin content of sorghum especially, the brown grain could make it difficult for the human body to absorb other nutrients (Awika and Roonney, 2004), and this makes sorghum the grain of choice for those battling obesity.

In addition, sorghum helps to manage cholesterol; grain sorghum could be used as food ingredients or dietary supplement to control cholesterol levels in humans (Carr et al., 2005), and the bran of the grain may also help protect against diabetes and insulin resistance (Farrar et al., 2008). Sorghum is deficient in lysine, threonine and tryptophan, and the presence of some anti-nutritional factors such as tannins and phytate that interact with proteins, vitamins and minerals reduces the bio-availability of the grain (Ahmed et al., 1996). However, malting, fermentation, and cooking are known to improve the protein digestibility of sorghum by reducing its tannin and phytate content (Thompson, 2010).

Sorghum as Raw Material for Industries

Sorghum is increasingly becoming the basis for a successful food and beverage industries in Nigeria. Industries in Nigeria use about 200,000 metric tons of sorghum annually; about a meagre 5% of the total sorghum marketed is channeled to industries as raw material (Sanni et al., 2003). Sorghum flour has been incorporated in wheat flours at various levels to produce cakes, cookies and bread (Sanni et al., 2003). The flour can be blended with other flours and can consist of up to 50% of the flour bread. Consumer acceptance trials in Nigeria of bread made with 0% sorghum flour was akin to 100% wheat flour bread (Sanni et al., 2003).

A similar study conducted in Sudan reveals that bread made with composite flour of 70% wheat and 30% sorghum flour were accepted (FAO, 1995). Baking has no effect on proximate, fatty acid and amino composition of sorghum flour bread (Khalil et al., 2004); bread made from wholly sorghum flour can be used as a gluten-free replacement for wheat, however, due to the lack of gluten, sorghum bread are generally unleavened (USDA and NRCS, 2006).




 Materials Source

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and Soybean (Glycine max) were purchased from a local market (Oja Oba) in Owo, Ondo state, Nigeria.

 Preparation of “Soy-ogi baba”

The production sequence for this product is the same as the sequence in 3.1 below except that 3.2 were enriched with 10% and 20% soybeans to produce soy-ogi baba. The soy-ogi baba produced was kept under refrigeration (Figure 3.1).




Table 4.1: Anti-nutrients of soybean fortified composite Ogi (mg/100g)





            The nutritional properties and the anti-nutritional factors of “ogi-baba” and “soy-ogi” were evaluated and from the findings of this study; it was observed that fortification of “ogi-baba” with soybean improved the nutrient content of “ogi” especially the protein content. The enhancement of the nutritional value of “ogi-baba” with soybean inclusion could help to alleviate the problem of malnutrition prevalence in Nigeria and other developing nations. The sensory evaluation results also shows that the sorghum and soybean blend of sample 3 (80:20) is ranked best among the samples.


Since it has been observed that the enhancement of the nutritional value of “ogi-baba” with soy inclusion could help to alleviate the problem of malnutrition, further studies could be carried out on the soy fortified “ogi-baba” to determine the mineral contents and probably, the shelf life of the samples.

Also, the processing method could be improved upon as defatting could be included as one of the unit operations. This will help in preventing rancidity that could be caused by the presence of fat.


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