Effect of Soybean Substitution on the Nutrients and Sensory Qualities of “Soy-ogi Baba”
Objective of the Study
This project work, therefore, embarked upon to investigate the effect of soybean substitution on the nutrient and sensory qualities of “soy-ogi baba”.
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)
Sorghum [Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench] is an indigenous crop to Africa, and remain a basic staple food for many rural communities. Sorghum is mainly cultivated in drier areas with an average temperature of 25°C, especially on shallow and heavy clay soils with an annual production ranging from 100,000 tonnes (130 00 ha) to 180,000 tonnes (150 000 ha) in South Africa (Devi et al., 2011). In recent years, there has been a shift in sorghum production from the drier western production areas to the wetter eastern areas. This change in production area has resulted in the identification and development of cultivars, which are more tolerant to lower temperatures (Devi et al., 2011). During drought, it rolls its leaves to reduce water loss due to perspiration. If the drought continues, it becomes dormant instead of dying. The leaves are protected by a waxy cuticle to reduce evapo-transpiration.
Sorghum is the fifth most important cereal crop in the world after rice, wheat, corn and barley and it serves as the main cereal food for over 750 million people living in semi-arid tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America (CCCF, 2011). In Senegal, as in many semi-arid countries of Africa and Asia, grains occupy an important place as food and feed. Sorghum grains are used by these people (especially farmers), who often do not have the means to feed themselves with other food sources rich in protein, vitamins and minerals. In these areas, they are intended for consumption as pasta, semolina, boiled and traditional beverages (Dykes and Rooney, 2016). The increasing demand of the grain in West Africa especially Nigeria, Ghana and Burkina Faso has been attributed to its industrial applications in the production of bioethanol and fodder in animal feed as well as population growth (Khady et al., 2010).
Impairment to the grain is often characterized with the presence of a testa, seed coat and brownish coloration. In some sorghum genotypes the testa is sometimes partial, not visible or even missing while in others it is highly pigmented (Evers and Millar, 2002). Phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins are the most widely represented and ubiquitous secondary metabolites present in sorghum grain (Awika and Rooney, 2004). These compounds play an important role in the defense mechanisms against insects and birds (Khady et al., 2010).
Botanical Classification of Sorghum bicolor L. Moench
Sorghum is classified under the genus Sorghum (Clayton and Renvoize, 2006). De Wet (2008) recognized S. bicolor, representing all annual cultivated, wild, and weedy sorghums along with two rhizomatous taxa: S. halepense and S. propinquum. S. bicolor was further broken down into three subspecies: S. bicolor subsp. bicolor, S. bicolor subsp. drummondii, and S. bicolor subsp. verticilliflorum. Cultivated sorghums are classified as S. bicolor subsp. bicolor and are represented in Europe by agronomic types such as grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, sudangrass, and broomcorn (Berenji and Dahlberg, 2004). Snowden (2006) classified broomcorn as Sorghum dochna (Forsk.) Snowden var. technicum (Koern.) Snowden. Contemporary classifications consider it as S. bicolor (L.) Moench, subsp. bicolor, race bicolor, working group nervosum–kaoliang (Dahlberg, 2000). It can be simply classified as S. bicolor (L.) Moench.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and Soybean (Glycine max) used for this project were purchased from a local market (Oja Oba) in Owo, Ondo state, Nigeria.
Preparation of Samples
Preparation of Sorghum: Soybean Blends
The sorghum grains and soybean seeds were sorted and the unwanted materials were removed by hand picking. Sorghum grains were composite at 0, 10, 20 and 30% levels with soybean seeds on replacement basis inside a bucket. Each blend was steeped in 2 litres tap water to prepare soy-ogi
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 4.1: Proximate Composition of Soy-ogi Samples
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Highest protein content was recorded in sample SBB produce from a combination of sorghum and soybean. There are also improvements in other nutrient investigated when sorghum flour fortified with soyabean. The study revealed that incorporation of 10% soyabean in the composite ogi produce from sorghum significantly improved, the nutrition qualities of the products, the sensory attributes of the samples shows that sample SBB (soy-ogi baba with 20% soybean) have the best outcome in all the sensory parameters accessed. Therefore, the fortification of sorghum with soybean proves to be very effective and can be used protein malnutrition by both adults and children.
Inclusion of highly nutritious soybean in the production of soy-ogi baba would not only increase the use of the locally grain crops. This would invariably lead to reduction in importation of instant weaning food. Further study on the proximate properties should be carried out in order to increase the shelf life of sorghum ogi fortified with soyabean.
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