Effect of Soybean Supplementation on the Quality of Spiced Ogi Produced From Sorghum and Maize
The Objective of the Study
This research was therefore embarked upon to investigate the influence of soybean supplementation on the quality of spiced Ogi produced from Sorghum and Maize.
Sorghum (Sorghum L. Moench)
Sorghum (Sorghum L. Moench) also known as guinea corn in West Africa and locally called Okababa, Dawa, and Okili in Nigeria belongs to the tribe Andropogonae (FAO, 1995). It is the fifth most important cereal crop by acreage after wheat, rice, maize, and barley globally; it is cultivated on marginal, fragile drought-prone environments in the semi-arid tropics of Africa and Asia, and it is a crop genetically suited to hot and dry agro ecologies where it is difficult to grow other food grains (ICRISAT, 2004). Sorghum has a fibrous root system that could penetrate up to 8 feet into the soil and that makes it one of the hardiest cereals.
Sorghum is one of the oldest known grains of Africa and India where it is commonly used in a variety of foods. From tonnage perspective, sorghum is the second most important cereal in Africa; its production has increased significantly over the past 40 years from 10 million metric tonnes to 26 million metric tonnes (FAO, 1995). Nigeria and Sudan produces about 63% of Africa’s total production (FAO, 1995).
Grain sorghum is the most commonly cultivated agronomic type of sorghum worldwide, and in Africa, it is a very important part of the diet which could be in the form of boiled porridge or gruel, unleavened bread, and rice-like products (Berenji and Dahlberg, 2004). Sorghum is one of the most important staples in the semi-arid tropics of Africa and Asia; it is the principal source of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals for millions of the poorest in these regions (FAO, 1995). However, human consumption is decreasing with enhanced socioeconomic status of population in general and easy availability of much preferred cereals in abundance and at affordable prices (Sheorain et al., 2000).
Sorghum is a global crop; it is known as kafferkoren, soedangrass, and suikergient in the Netherlands, mtatam, shallu or feterita in East Africa, kaoliang in China, durra in Egypt, chicken corn or guinea corn in the United Kingdom, milo in Middle East Africa, jola, jowa, cholam, bisinga or durra in India, kaffir corn in South Africa, sorgo, milo or sudangrass in USA and guinea corn, feterita, sorghum, or sorgho in West Africa (Dicko et al., 2006).
Sorghum and Nutrition
Sorghum grain has 95 to 98% of the nutritional value of maize; vitamin content for corn and sorghum is similar but sorghum has a higher mineral content than maize (Balota, 2012). Sorghum grain has a lot of nutritional benefits due to its rich antioxidant properties (Green, 2012). It is higher in protein (11.5 to 16.5%) and calories than several other grains (Martin and MacMasters, 2000). One cup serving (100 g) of sorghum contain 143 g of carbohydrate and 326 calories most of which comes from carbohydrate, 12 g of dietary fibre, and would provide 47% of the recommended daily value for iron based on a 2,000 calorie intake (Thompson, 2010). 100 g (one cup serving) of sorghum contains 325 calories and has 10.8 mg of protein, 0 mg of sugar, 3.1 mg of fat, 6.0 mg of fibre and 0 mg of cholesterol. Sorghum contains the following vitamins and minerals: vitamins B1, B2 and B3, calcium (Ca), potassium (K), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), and sodium (Na). 100 g (one cup serving) would provide 55% Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of phosphorus, 19% RDA of potassium, 47% RDA of iron, 5.4% RDA of calcium and 0.5% RDA of sodium.
Although, the grain is low in sodium, it has a large amount of iron and a 100 g serving would meet over 50% of the recommended intake of iron for men and 24% for women; this is more iron than that in equal amount of brown rice (Thompson, 2010). Protein is one of the major components of sorghum; the primary function of dietary protein is to satisfy the body’s need for nitrogen and essential amino acid (FAO, 1995). The average starch content of sorghum is 69.5% (Thompson, 2010), and the crude fat content is 3% which is higher than wheat and rice (FAO, 1995). It contains no cholesterol, and like all other grains, has a fairly good amount of carbohydrates that could meet a good deal of recommended daily intake (Thompson, 2010).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The Maize (Zea may L), Sorghum (Sorghum L. Moench), Soybean (Glycine max) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) used were purchased from a local market (Oja Ikoko) in Owo, Ondo state, Nigeria. The samples were thoroughly cleaned by picking all broken kernels, stones, together with other foreign particles and the good ones were sorted out.
Preparation of fermented maize flour
The maize was first sorted to remove foreign materials after which it was thoroughly washed separately in portable water and soaked in a plastic container with cover. The water was decanted after three days of soaking and wet milled into slurry using a cleaned warring blender. This was followed by sieving the slurry using a muslin cloth. It was then dried for about 48 hours at 50oC before it was grinded to powder (Fig I).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 4.1: Proximate composition of Ogi produce from sorghum, maize and soybean fortified with ginger
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Mixture effect can occur simply because foods are not isolated from chemicals but complex combination of thousands of compounds with potential impact on the senses of taste, aroma and texture. In conclusion addition of spice influenced the sensory score, microbial activity and proximate analysis of the investigated samples of soybean supplemented with sorghum and maize. The selected spice in this study affected especially on spicy taste sensory quality of investigated ogi was affected by amount of spices. Improvement in the technology of ogi has led to the development of soy-ogi, a combination of maize, soybeans and sorghum. Spiced ogi is a better option for preserving foods compared to the use of many chemicals.
The supplementation of soybean in ogi up to 30 % is recommended due to the nutritional attributes of soybean that can be of great use especially in infant food, this can be used some of the ways in alleviating malnutrition in children in many developing countries.
Also, ginger is recommended for ogi fortification against microorganism, longer shelf life and improvement of the nutritional composition of the ogi. A concentration of 5 % ginger is preferably recommended.
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