Microbiology Project Topics

Effect of Varying Levels of Moringa Oleifera Leaves on the Growth Performance and Protein Level of African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus).

Effect of Varying Levels of Moringa Oleifera Leaves on the Growth Performance and Protein Level of African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus).

Effect of Varying Levels of Moringa Oleifera Leaves on the Growth Performance and Protein Level of African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus).

Chapter One

Objectives of the study

The main objective of the study is to examine the Effect of varying levels of Moringa oleifera leaves on the Growth performance and protein level of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

Specifically, the study sought to examine:

  1. The growth performance, nutrient utilization and survival parameters of Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with varying inclusion level of Moringa oleifera.
  2. The initial and final carcass proximate composition of Clarias gariepinus fed with different inclusion levels of Moringa oleiferaleaf meal (MOLM).
  3. The water quality parameter of the experimental tanks’ growth fed with varying inclusion level of Moringa oleifera.



Moringa oleifera

Overview of Moringa oleifera

Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam). is a type of local medicinal Nigerian herb which has turn out to be familiar in the tropical and subtropical countries. The other terms used for Moringa are Horseradish tree, Mulangay, Mlonge, Benzolive, Drumstick tree, Sajna, Kelor, Saijihan and Marango. Moringa oleifera is shown in scientific division to become from Kingdom: Plantae, Division: Magnoliphyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Brassicales, Family: Moringaceae, Genus: Moringa, Species: M. oleifera (Fahey, 2005).

Moringa oleifera is one of the vegetables of the Brassica order and belongs to the family Moringaceae. The Moringaceae is a single genus family with 13 known species (Khawaja et al., 2010). Moringa oleifera is a small native tree of the sub-Himalayan regions of North West Nigeria, which is now indigenous to many regions in Africa, Arabia, South East Asia, the Pacific and Caribbean Islands and South America. Traditionally, besides being a daily used vegetable among people of these regions, the Moringa is also widely known and used for its health benefits. Among commoners, it has earned its name as ‘the miracle tree’ due to its amazing healing abilities  for various ailments and even some chronic diseases. Several investigations were carried out to isolate bioactive compounds from various parts of the plant due to its  various applications (Guevara et al., 2019). Therefore, herbal plants in medicine or known as phytomedicine are still trustworthy and widely applied as one of the alternative way in medicinal field due to its affordable cost (Abalaka et al., 2009).

For centuries and in many cultures around the world, the medicinal usage of the Moringa has been used to treat problems such as skin infections, anaemia, anxiety, asthma, blackheads, blood impurities, bronchitis, catarrh, chest congestion, cholera and many other illnesses (Khawaja et al., 2010; Hamza, 2010; Singh et al., 2012). Moringa oleifera also consists of anti-inflammatory, anti- spasmodic, anti-hypertensive, anti-tumour, anti-oxidant, anti-pyretic, anti-ulcer, anti-epileptic, diuretic, cholesterol lowering, renal, anti-diabetic, (Paliwal et al., 2011; Sharma et al., 2012) and hepatoprotective activities (Lai et al., 2010; Huang et al., 2012). It has also long been labelled for its great cosmetic value in which in recent years, the Moringa has commonly been found to be used in various health care products including body and hair moisturisers and conditioners. It was also discovered that Moringa oil was used in skin ointments ever since the Egyptian times. The Moringa was claimed to be ‘the most nutrient-rich plant yet discovered’ by Khawaja et al. (2010).

Moringa leaves have been reported to be a rich source of β-carotene, protein, vitamin C, calcium and potassium and act as a good source of natural antioxidants; and thus enhance the shelf-life of fat containing foods due to the presence of various types of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolics and carotenoids. Almost all the parts of this plant: root, bark, gum, leaf, fruit [pods], flowers, seed and seed oil have been used for various ailments in the indigenous medicine of South Asia, including the treatment of inflammation and infectious diseases along with cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hematological and hepato-renal disorders. The seeds of Moringa are considered to be antipyretic, acrid, bitter.

Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated species of the Moringaceae, which are native to the sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan (Fahey, 2005). This rapidly-growing tree (also known as the horseradish tree or drumstick tree), was utilized by the ancient Romans, Greeks and Egyptians. It is now widely cultivated and has become naturalized in many locations in the tropics (Fahey, 2005). Analyses of the leaf composition have revealed them to have significant quantities of vitamins A, B and C, calcium, iron and protein (Ramachandran et al., 1980). In Nigeria, Moringa has been grown for centuries and probably widely used by traditional herbalist for a much longer period, but it has only recently been embraced by Nigeriaians for its nutritional and anecdotal medicinal properties. Many families are reportedly incorporating this herb into supplement their diets (www.info-Nigeria.com).




Study design

This study on the “Effects of varying levels of Moringa oleifera leaves on the Growth performance and protein level of African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus)” is an experimental method. The experiment will be carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture Farm, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria.

  Sources of feed ingredients

Fresh Moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera Lam.) will be collected freshly from the trees in Nwaniba and authenticated in the Herbarium of Biology Department University of Uyo. Other feed stuffs (fishmeal, yellow maize meal, Vitamin premix) will be obtained from Itam market Uyo. Blood for the blood meal will be obtained from a freshly killed cow.

 Diet preparation and processing 

Five isonitrogenous, isocaloric diets will be formulated containing 50% crude protein using the Pearson square method. Feeds will be formulated with inclusions of varying quantities of fish meal combined with Moringa leaf meal.


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