Human Kinetics and Physical Education Project Topics

Effects of 4 Weeks of Aerobic Dance Exercise on the Cardiovascular Variables of Registered Gym Users of Delta State College of Education

Effects of 4 Weeks of Aerobic Dance Exercise on the Cardiovascular Variables of Registered Gym Users of Delta State College of Education

Effects of 4 Weeks of Aerobic Dance Exercise on the Cardiovascular Variables of Registered Gym Users of Delta State College of Education


Objectives of the Study

The following specific objectives were investigated:

  1. To investigate the effect of a 4-week aerobic dance exercise program on the resting heart rate of registered gym users at Delta State College of Education.
  2. To assess the impact of the aerobic dance exercise program on the blood pressure levels (systolic and diastolic) of registered gym users.
  3. To examine changes in aerobic capacity, as measured by VO2 max, following the 4-week aerobic dance exercise intervention among registered gym users.



Conceptual Review

Aerobic Exercise and Cardiovascular Health

Aerobic exercise is a fundamental component of physical activity, characterized by moderate-intensity activities that are sustained over a period. It involves continuous rhythmic movements that increase heart rate and breathing rate. Studies by Hammouda et al. (2022) and Lemura et al. (2020) have highlighted the importance of aerobic exercise in improving cardiovascular health. This form of exercise promotes enhanced heart function by strengthening the heart muscle and improving its efficiency in pumping blood throughout the body.

The cardiovascular benefits associated with aerobic exercise are extensive and impactful. Research conducted by Kelley & Kelley (2021) and Mann et al. (2020) has consistently demonstrated that engaging in regular aerobic exercise can lead to a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors. These benefits include lowered blood pressure, improved lipid profiles, and better glucose regulation. Furthermore, aerobic exercise contributes to weight management and plays a crucial role in maintaining overall cardiovascular health.

The relationship between aerobic exercise and cardiovascular variables such as heart rate and blood pressure is well-established in scientific literature. Studies by Tran & Weltman (2019) and Göksu et al. (2021) have elucidated that aerobic exercise leads to a decrease in resting heart rate due to enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Additionally, regular aerobic exercise has been shown to have a positive impact on lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels, contributing to reduced hypertension risk (Choudhary & Narwal, 2022).

Moreover, aerobic exercise influences other cardiovascular variables beyond heart rate and blood pressure. For instance, it enhances cardiac output, which refers to the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute. This improvement is crucial for overall cardiovascular function and endurance during physical activities. Studies by Astrand & Rodalf (2022) and Jothi et al. (2020) have explored these physiological adaptations resulting from aerobic exercise, emphasizing its holistic benefits for cardiovascular health.

Aerobic Dance as a Form of Exercise

Aerobic dance represents a dynamic form of exercise that combines dance movements with aerobic conditioning. It involves rhythmic and continuous movements performed to music, incorporating elements of dance choreography and aerobic fitness techniques. Studies by Schiffer et al. (2020) and Ossanloo et al. (2022) have provided insights into the definition and characteristics of aerobic dance, highlighting its engaging and enjoyable nature.

When comparing aerobic dance to traditional aerobic exercises such as jogging or cycling, distinct differences and advantages emerge. Research by Çakmakci et al. (2019) and Nikic & Milenkovic (2019) have noted that aerobic dance offers a more interactive and social exercise experience. It fosters a sense of community and motivation among participants, leading to increased adherence to exercise routines compared to traditional methods.

The benefits of aerobic dance extend beyond physical fitness to cardiovascular health and lipid profiles. Studies by Kin et al. (2021) and Maria et al. (2019) have demonstrated that regular participation in aerobic dance sessions can lead to improvements in cardiovascular fitness parameters such as VO2 max and heart rate recovery.





This study aimed to investigate the effects of aerobic dance exercise on cardiovascular variables among registered gym users. To achieve this, a quantitative survey research design was adopted, given its suitability for measuring numerical data related to physical fitness parameters and cardiovascular health. This design allowed for the collection of structured data through questionnaires and assessments, facilitating an objective analysis of the variables of interest. Quantitative research is well-suited for this study as it enables the researcher to quantify the changes in cardiovascular variables pre and post-intervention, providing statistical evidence to support the study’s findings (Saunders et al., 2019).

Research Philosophy

The research philosophy underpinning this study was positivism, aiming to establish causal relationships between aerobic dance exercise and improvements in cardiovascular health indicators. Positivism aligns to produce generalizable and reliable findings based on empirical evidence (Bell, 2022). By adopting a positivist stance, the study focused on measurable outcomes such as changes in resting heart rate, blood pressure, and aerobic capacity following the aerobic dance intervention.

Research Design

The chosen research design was a quantitative survey approach. This design was justified based on its ability to gather numerical data on cardiovascular variables before and after the intervention, allowing for statistical analysis to determine the effectiveness of aerobic dance exercise on cardiovascular health (Saunders et al., 2019). The quantitative survey design also facilitated the collection of data from a large sample, ensuring the study’s findings were representative of the target population of registered gym users engaging in aerobic dance activities.

Population of the Study

The target population for this study consisted of 1200 registered gym users who regularly participated in aerobic dance sessions. This population was chosen based on the accessibility of participants within gym settings where aerobic dance classes are commonly offered. The justification for this target population size was to ensure an adequate sample for robust statistical analysis while focusing on individuals with a specific interest in aerobic dance as a form of exercise (Charan & Biswas, 2019).



Data Presentation

The results from Table 4.1 show that out of the total 120 questionnaires distributed, 108 were returned and completed, representing a completion rate of 90%. On the other hand, 12 questionnaires were not returned or remained uncompleted, constituting a 10% non-completion rate. These findings indicate a relatively high response rate, which is beneficial for ensuring data adequacy and reliability in the study. The high percentage of returned and completed questionnaires suggests that the respondents were interested and willing to participate in the research, reflecting their engagement with the topic and the importance they placed on providing accurate information. This level of participation strengthens the validity of the study’s findings and enhances the overall quality of the research outcomes.



Summary of Findings

The study aimed to investigate the effects of a 4-week aerobic dance exercise program on the cardiovascular health of registered gym users at Delta State College of Education. Through a comprehensive examination of various parameters including resting heart rate, blood pressure levels, and aerobic capacity, the study sought to assess the efficacy of the intervention in improving participants’ cardiovascular fitness. The findings revealed significant improvements across multiple dimensions of cardiovascular health, highlighting the positive impact of the aerobic dance program.

Starting with resting heart rate, the results indicated a significant decrease following participation in the aerobic dance sessions. A majority of participants reported a noticeable improvement in their resting heart rate, corroborating the statistical analysis that showed a significant mean difference. This reduction in resting heart rate suggests enhanced heart function and overall cardiovascular efficiency among participants, which is indicative of improved cardiovascular health.

Similarly, participants experienced significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after engaging in the aerobic dance program. The qualitative perceptions of participants regarding changes in blood pressure levels were consistent with the statistical analysis, which demonstrated significant mean differences and narrow confidence intervals. These findings suggest that the aerobic dance exercise intervention effectively lowered participants’ blood pressure, reducing their risk of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension.

Furthermore, the study assessed participants’ aerobic capacity, as measured by VO2 max, before and after the 4-week aerobic dance program. The results revealed a significant improvement in aerobic capacity among participants, with a majority reporting a noticeable increase in stamina and endurance. The statistical analysis supported these qualitative perceptions, indicating a significant mean difference in aerobic capacity following the intervention. This enhancement in aerobic capacity suggests improved cardiovascular fitness and endurance levels among participants, which are crucial for overall health and well-being.

Moreover, the study explored participants’ perceptions and experiences regarding the aerobic dance program’s impact on their cardiovascular health. While there were some uncertainties and variations in perceptions, the overall qualitative feedback was positive, with many participants expressing satisfaction with the program and acknowledging its benefits. This qualitative aspect complemented the quantitative findings, providing a comprehensive understanding of participants’ experiences and perceptions regarding the intervention.

In summary, the findings of the study underscore the effectiveness of the 4-week aerobic dance exercise program in improving the cardiovascular health of registered gym users. The significant improvements observed in resting heart rate, blood pressure levels, and aerobic capacity highlight the program’s positive impact on participants’ cardiovascular fitness. These findings have significant implications for promoting cardiovascular health and well-being among individuals, emphasizing the importance of incorporating aerobic dance exercise interventions into fitness programs.


The results from the hypotheses tested in this study provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of a 4-week aerobic dance exercise program in improving the cardiovascular health of registered gym users. The findings revealed significant improvements in various cardiovascular parameters, including resting heart rate, blood pressure levels, and aerobic capacity, following the intervention. These results lead to several key conclusions regarding the impact of aerobic dance exercise on cardiovascular fitness and overall well-being.

Firstly, the significant decrease in resting heart rate observed among participants indicates improved heart function and efficiency. A lower resting heart rate is often associated with better cardiovascular health, as it signifies the heart’s ability to pump blood more effectively, reducing the workload on the heart and lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Secondly, the notable reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels post-intervention are indicative of improved vascular health. Lower blood pressure levels contribute to a reduced risk of hypertension and related cardiovascular complications, highlighting the beneficial effects of aerobic dance exercise on blood pressure management.

Additionally, the significant improvement in aerobic capacity, as measured by VO2 max, underscores the enhancement in participants’ cardiovascular fitness and endurance levels. Improved aerobic capacity is crucial for overall physical fitness and is linked to better cardiovascular and metabolic health outcomes.

Overall, the findings support the hypothesis that participating in a 4-week aerobic dance exercise program can lead to significant improvements in cardiovascular health among registered gym users. These results emphasize the importance of incorporating regular aerobic exercise, such as dance-based workouts, into fitness routines to promote heart health, reduce blood pressure, and enhance overall cardiovascular fitness. The study’s outcomes have practical implications for fitness instructors, healthcare professionals, and individuals seeking effective strategies to improve their cardiovascular well-being through structured exercise programs. Further research could explore long-term effects and adherence rates to such interventions, providing a more comprehensive understanding of their sustained benefits on cardiovascular health.


Based on the findings and conclusions drawn from the study on the effectiveness of a 4-week aerobic dance exercise program on cardiovascular health, the following recommendations are proposed:

  1. Promote Aerobic Dance Programs: Encourage fitness centers, gyms, and community centers to offer structured aerobic dance programs as part of their fitness classes. Highlight the cardiovascular benefits of such programs to attract participants interested in improving heart health.
  2. Tailor Exercise Programs: Develop personalized aerobic dance exercise plans based on participants’ fitness levels, age, and health status. Customized programs can optimize benefits while ensuring safety and adherence.
  3. Educational Campaigns: Launch public awareness campaigns to educate the community about the importance of regular aerobic exercise in maintaining cardiovascular health. Provide information on the specific benefits of aerobic dance and its positive impact on heart function.
  4. Include Monitoring and Evaluation: Incorporate regular monitoring of cardiovascular parameters such as resting heart rate, blood pressure, and aerobic capacity during aerobic dance programs. This data can help track progress, adjust exercise intensity as needed, and motivate participants.
  5. Encourage Regular Physical Activity: Advocate for a holistic approach to health that includes not only structured exercise programs but also daily physical activity. Encourage participants to engage in activities like walking, cycling, or other forms of exercise to complement aerobic dance sessions.
  6. Provide Nutritional Guidance: Offer nutritional counseling and guidance alongside aerobic dance programs. A balanced diet plays a crucial role in supporting cardiovascular health, and participants can benefit from learning about healthy eating habits.
  7. Incorporate Stress Management: Integrate stress-reducing techniques such as mindfulness, meditation, or yoga into fitness programs. Managing stress is vital for overall well-being and can positively impact cardiovascular health.
  8. Long-Term Follow-Up: Conduct follow-up assessments beyond the 4-week period to evaluate the sustainability of cardiovascular improvements. Long-term data can inform strategies for maintaining gains and preventing relapse.

Contribution to Knowledge

The findings of this study make several significant contributions to the existing knowledge in the field of exercise physiology and cardiovascular health. Firstly, the study adds empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of a 4-week aerobic dance exercise program in improving cardiovascular parameters among registered gym users. By conducting rigorous assessments of resting heart rate, blood pressure levels, and aerobic capacity (VO2 max), the study demonstrates the positive impact of structured aerobic dance sessions on heart health.

Secondly, the study contributes to understanding the potential of aerobic dance as a viable exercise modality for individuals seeking cardiovascular benefits. While traditional aerobic exercises like running, cycling, or swimming are well-established, aerobic dance offers a more engaging and enjoyable alternative. This contribution is particularly relevant in promoting physical activity adherence among individuals who may find traditional exercises monotonous or challenging.

Furthermore, the study’s findings shed light on the importance of regular exercise in maintaining and improving cardiovascular health. The documented reductions in resting heart rate and blood pressure levels post-intervention highlight the physiological adaptations that occur with consistent aerobic exercise. This knowledge reinforces public health messages advocating for regular physical activity as a cornerstone of preventive healthcare, especially concerning cardiovascular diseases.

Moreover, the study’s focus on aerobic capacity measured by VO2 max adds depth to the understanding of aerobic fitness and its relationship to overall health. By quantitatively assessing participants’ aerobic capacity before and after the intervention, the study provides insights into the specific physiological changes associated with aerobic dance exercise. This contributes to the body of evidence supporting the role of aerobic fitness in enhancing cardiovascular function and overall well-being.

Lastly, the study’s methodology and analytical approach contribute to research methodologies in exercise science and health promotion. The use of one-sample t-tests, as demonstrated in the analysis of the study’s hypotheses, showcases a rigorous quantitative method for evaluating the effectiveness of exercise interventions on specific health outcomes. This methodological contribution can guide future research endeavors aiming to assess the impact of various exercise modalities on cardiovascular health and other physiological parameters.


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