Sociology Project Topics

Effects of Alcoholism on Youths in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria

Effects of Alcoholism on Youths in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria

Effects of Alcoholism on Youths in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria


Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the effects of alcoholism on youths in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau state, Nigeria.

In other words, the problem of alcohol has been known for decades starting from the time of Noah, down to the time of Solomon who gave this instruction concerning alcohol, so the Nigerian situation is not new. If the Scripture offered solution then, this work will apply it to the contemporary Nigerian situation with the intention to bring solutions also.

The following are the specific objectives of the study:

  1. To assess the prevalence of alcohol use among the youths.
  2. To identify the types of alcohol consumed by the youths.
  3. To determine the perceived effects of alcohol use among the youths.
  4. To determine the factors that influence alcohol use among the youths.



The Concept of Alcohol  

A proper approach on alcoholism may not be possible if an introductory discuss is not made on the concept of alcohol. William (2007) stated that in chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound which the hydroxyl functional group is (-0H) bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bound to three other atoms. An important class of alcohol is the simple acyclic alcohol, the general formula for which is CnH2n+10H of that ethanol (C2H50H) is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages and in common speech the word alcohol refers specifically to ethanol.

Ethanol, also called alcohol is a colorless flammable liquid which can be found in wine, beer, spirits and other drinks. It can also be used as fuel or and as industrial solvents.

Alcohol is the product of fermentation of yeast, sugars and starches. Alcohol is a drug (Bai, Anderson, & Moo-Young, 2008) and it is classified as an a depressant. This means that, it slows down vital functions of the resulting in slurred speech, unsteady movement, inability to quickly react as well as the ability to think rationally and distorts ones judgment. Alcohol exerts an effects on every organ of the human body (Bai, Anderson, & Moo-Young, 2008; Guo & Jun, 2010). It depresses the central nervous system. Alcohol can readily be absorbed by the small intestines. It can quickly travel to the central Nervous system and depresses the system (Messing, 2014; Zakhari, 2006). The metabolism of this substance takes place in the liver. This action of metabolism is accomplished by the liver enzymes. The liver metabolizes a portion of alcohol at a time remaining left over circulates throughout the human body. The real intensity of the alcohol on the body is proportional to the intake. Therefore Individual reactions are varied to the alcohol, and this can be due to many reasons and factors that are present. Some of the factors could be age, gender, the physical condition (weight, fitness level etc) the amount of food the person consumed before taking a drink. Other influencing factors include drugs or prescription of medications and family history of on the alcohol problems (CDC, 2000).

 Biblical Analysis of Wine

Biblical literature uses several words in its original language to refer to different types of alcoholic beverages. Some of these words have overlapping meaning, particularly the words in the Hebrew language compared to the words in koine Greek, the languages of both the Septuagint and the New Testament. The Old Testament Scripture being written in Biblical Hebrew with portions in biblical Aramaic, its modern representative, the Masoretic text, uses several words to represent alcoholic beverages:

The word yāyin (!yIy” ) is the common word translated wine. Browning (2004) pointed out “properly, it must sometimes be rendered as wine, new wine or sweet wine. It can represent juice at any stage in the fermentation process, and in some places it represents rather wine made from the first drippings of the juice before the winepress was trodden. As such it would be particularly potent”. Maynard (1997) concluded that this yāyin can certainly be alcoholic as in Hosea 4:11. Closely related to the word is tîrôš (vAryTi) which can also mean new wine, fresh wine or freshly pressed wine. Fitzsmmond (1982) revealed that tîrôš is used thirty-eight times in the Old Testament like in Haggi 1:11, Zech 9:17, twenty of those in conjunction with grain and/or oil as the fresh produce of the field. It is said to be “in the cluster”

(Isa 65:8), the vats or presses overflow with it (Proverbs 3:10, Joel 2:24). Brown-Driver-Briggs

(BDB) (2007) argued that the word is never associated with drunkenness except perhaps in Hosea 4:11, where yāyin is also mentioned.

Another word used in the Hebrew Scripture for alcoholic wine is šēkār (rk’ve) which means strong drink. This three consonant verb rkv is the root word which indicates „to be drunk‟ šākar (rk;v’), they can form the noun šikkor rKvi “a drunkard” or the state of being drunk, šikkārôn !ArK’vi “drunkenness”. According to Morris (1995) “strong drink” (šēkār) denotes any inebriating drink with about 7-10 percent alcoholic content, not hard liquor, because there is no evidence of distilled liquor in ancient time. It was made from either fruit and/or barley beer. Smith (2007:12) added “but generally it is used in combination with „wine‟ and strong drink to encompass all varieties of intoxicants”. The Old Testament also uses the word hemer (rm,x,) in regards to wine. This masculine noun conveys the idea of foaming as in the process of fermentation, or when powered out (Deut 32:14; Isa 27:2). Edwin (1998) indicated that it is derived from the root word hāmar (rm;x’) meaning; to boil up, ferment or foam. The verbal form (rmx) “hmr” is illustrated in Psalms 46:3 in which “waters…… be troubled or foam”




Study Design

The study was a quantitative cross-sectional survey that administered questionnaire to a cross section of Senior Secondary school (SSS) students.

Study Area

The study was conducted in two selected Senior Secondary schools (SSS) in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau state. Pankshin is a Local Government Area in Plateau State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Pankshin. It has an area of 1,524 km² and a population of 191,685 at the 2006 census. Pankshin is popularly known for its trade hub as most of the people are farmers growing a vast range of food crops such as millet, guinea corn, maize, tomatoes, rice, onions, cabbage, carrot and collections of fruits. Mondays in Pankshin is specifically for trading – buying and selling, hence the name “Monday market” as traders, merchants and people in the environs and as far as away as Bauchi come to buy and sell. Situated amidst people with diverse cultures, Pankshin inhabitants speak a number of languages including Ngas, Mupun, Miship, Fier, Tal, Kadung, Pal and Bijim. They are lovable people with high regard for people irrespective of colour, gender or tribe. Predominantly populated by Ngas. Pankshin inhabitants are mostly Christians with few Traditional Religionists, and Muslims who migrated from Zaria, Katsina, Kano and Kebbi respectively. The predominantly populated church is the Church of Christ in Nations (COCiN). Other churches include the Roman Catholic Church, Anglican church, Foursquare gospel church, Assemblies of God, The Redeemed Christian church of God, MFM, etc.



This chapter presents findings of the study obtained from the analysis. This is done in relation to the study’s objectives. Findings reveal that a total of 392 Youths completed the structured questionnaire out of the 421 questionnaires distributed.



5.0 Introduction

The study was carried out mainly to determine the effects of alcoholism on youths in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau state, Nigeria. This chapter therefore reveals the major findings from the analyzed data and the overall conclusions of the study after which recommendations are made.


5.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Alcohol Use

The study revealed that there is no significant association between the age of respondents and their tendency to use alcohol (p=0.128). This finding is in contradiction to a study carried out by Ntowbea- Cofie, (2010) in the Dangme West District showing a significant difference in age between those who drink and those who do not, where (p=0.003). The study also shows a relationship between gender of the respondents and their tendency to use alcohol (p=0.001). This concurs to a study by Adu-Mireku, (2003) among Youths in Accra which reported that boys are more likely than girls to use alcohol. Also, the findings concurs with a Global School –Based Survey done in Uganda 14% and 12%of boys and girls aged 13-15 years, respectively  reported that they took alcohol so much that they got drunk.

There was no significant relationship between religion and alcohol use among the respondents (p=0.608). The finding on religion and alcohol consumption is not in line with Galen & Roger (2004), assertion that student who indicates to be part of a religion report less alcohol use compared to those without any religion.

Alcohol use is among participants in Form 1 and Form 2 is similar. One would have expected a higher proportion of users in Form 2 than in Form 1. This is probably due to the similarities in ages among students in both classes. But a significant relationship existed between ethnicity and alcohol use among the respondents.


5.2 Prevalence of Alcohol Use.

The study reveals that 35% of the total sample attested to have taken alcohol. This can therefore be used as a conclusion that there is a prevalence of alcohol use among Youths who participated in the study. The finding from the study therefore concurs with the findings of Boschloo, Reeuwijk, Schoevers, and Penninx, (2014) as well as the findings of Corte and Sommers, (2005). The value also shows that the prevalent rate in the Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau state is higher than that obtained from the Kintampo Municipality when similar studies were done by Nimako, (2012) and Adu- Mireku, (2003) among Youths in Accra with alcohol use prevalence of 25.7.

Relating the findings of the current intake of Youths in the Ga Central Municipal to that of a study done among Youths in South Western Nigeria (Fatoye, 2003), there is a major decrease in alcohol use with a recording of 5.8% from this study as against the 13% obtained from that study.


5.3 Preferred Alcoholic Beverage

The study further shows that the type’s alcoholic beverages preferred are mostly beer and wine. However, beer is reported to be the most preferred category of alcoholic beverages contributing 44.5% of the number who said they enjoyed alcohol. This is true for a study conducted by Tanski et al, (20110) in the UAS among 2699 youth between the ages of 16 to 20 years in the USA. The finding showed that about 42% the respondents attested that beer is the alcoholic beverage of preference.


5.4 Reasons for Alcohol Use

The study revealed that, the major reason that made students in SSS take alcohol for the first time was out of curiosity. This reason contributed 44.5% of the entire assessed reasons used in the questionnaire. This was followed by friends‟ encouraged with the minority reason being for the purposes of getting drunk with 4.4%. The finding is in contradiction to (Kim & Neff, 2010) that parental alcohol intake is primary influencer to a youth alcohol use. Also, a study conducted in Wisconsin by (Nash, McQueen & Bray, 2005) among High School students showed that, 53.3% said that parental influence was instrumental to the intake and no-intake of alcohol.


5.5 Effects of Alcohol Use

Also, the study brought out information that there was a significantly no effect of alcohol use among Youths. Close to 95% of the respondents said they have not experienced any of the effects of alcohol stated in the questionnaire used in the study. There were no medical, psychiatric or social consequences that can significantly be attributed to the use of alcohol by Youths in the Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau state. Effects like poor diet found in the studies of WHO (2003), peptic ulcer (Teyssen & Singer, 2003) among other significant effect from other studies were not found out in this study.


5.6 Factors Influencing Alcohol Use

The study revealed that alcohol advertisement and peers are the major influences of alcohol use among students. The findings somehow confirms the assumption made by Anderson et al (2009), that exposure to alcohol advertising increases the likelihood that a youth will consume alcohol.

Parental influence, religious beliefs, students‟ level in SSS and the age of students did not have any influence on the use of alcohol by students. That being said, it is noteworthy to reveal that gender and ethnicity or cultural believes are significant influences of alcohol use among students although their influences have weak correlations. The findings gotten from the studies of Kim and Neff, (2010) have therefore been contrasted by this finding. There is also a contradiction in the findings of Latendresse, (2010) which offered that parental influence affects the alcohol use of youths.

A comparison of the two schools used in the study revealed that there is no significant recording that may suggest a difference in prevalence, effects and influences of alcohol among the schools. In view of this fact, it can be concluded that alcohol use has no relationship to the nature of a youths school be it a public SSS or private SSS for that matter as employed in this study.




The results obtained from the study suggested that there was a low prevalence of alcohol use among Youths in the Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau state. For those who took alcohol, the principal factors that influenced them to drink were alcohol advertisement and peer pressure. There were however, no reported significant effects of alcohol on the students who use it.


  • Similar studies should include SSS 3 students and also out of school students in the community.
  • The mesmerizing nature of alcohol advertising on our Medias should be reduced.
  • The influence of peer pressure should also be tackled especially in our second cycle institutions to reduce its negative effects on youths by focusing on its positive sides
  • The study also showed that majority of the respondents live with their parents and they serve as their main of pocket money. Parents should use this opportunity to moderately give their children just the amount that they need. Also parents should live a model life worthy of emulation by their children and neighbors.
  • Finally, the youth should have life skills both in schools and the community so as to give them less time to indulge in risky behaviors such as alcohol misuse and abuse.

Contribution to Knowledge  

The relevant of this research work and its impact in the field of theology cannot be overemphasized. This research work has taken in-depth study and analyses on the concept of alcoholism from the biblical point of view, trying to limit itself only to the book of Proverbs 23:24-35. This study applied the same analysis to the Nigerian situation with closer findings on the problems associated with alcoholism.

Therefore, this study has injected fresh idea in combating alcoholism from the religious point of view using the Old Testament study. This is a new innovation in the development of religious studies because the concept of alcoholism in previous years has only been approach from the medical, psychological and sociological field. Also the call for Nigerian church to wake up to the contemporary challenge of alcoholism in the society is impressive since such knowledge has not been revealed. Generally this research work has injected fresh idea in the concept of alcoholism and associate problems.

Suggestion for Further Studies

The researcher suggests to other scholars who may wish to carry out study on alcoholism and related issues to research on;

  1. The implication of alcoholism on the alcoholic immediate family; scriptural approach.
  2. The contribution of environment on the development of alcoholism in Nigeria. An overview of alcoholism in Oron, Cross River State.
  3. The study of Genesis 19:30-38 on the relationship between alcoholism and immorality.

Lesson to Nigeria.


  • Adu-Mireku, S. (2003). The Prevalence of Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use Among Nigerian Senior Secondary Students in an Urban Setting. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 2(1), 53–65.
  • Ammerman, N. T. (2014). Finding religion in everyday life. Sociology of Religion: A Quarterly Review, 75(2), 189–207.
  • Bai, F. W., Anderson, W. a, & Moo-Young, M. (2008). Ethanol fermentation technologies from sugar and starch feedstocks. Biotechnology Advances, 26(1), 89–105.
  • Blachier, M., Leleu, H., Peck-Radosavljevic, M., Valla, D.-C., & Roudot-Thoraval, F. (2013). The burden of liver disease in Europe: a review of available epidemiological data. Journal of Hepatology, 58(3), 593–608.
  • Bouwmeester, L. (n.d.). Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption amongst youth, the influence of social norms and religion.
  • Brausch, A. M., & Gutierrez, P. M. (2010). Differences in non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in youths. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(3), 233–242.
  • Brown, S. a., McGue, M., Maggs, J., Schulenberg, J., Hingson, R., Swartzwelder, S., Murphy, S. (2008). A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age. Pediatrics, 121(Supplement), S290–S310.
  • Cederbaum, A. I. (2012). Alcohol Metabolism. Clinics in Liver Disease, 16(4), 667–685.
  • Chun, T. H., & Linakis, J. G. (2012). Interventions for youth alcohol use. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 24(2), 238–42.
  • Coffie, C. N. (2010). School of Public Health Department of Social and Behavioral Science Prevalence of Substance Use Among Junior High This Dissertation Is Submitted To the University of Nigeria , in Partial Fulfilment of the Require-, (August).
  • Danielsson, A. K., Wennberg, P., Hibell, B., & Romelsjö, A. (2012). Alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking and subsequent problems among youths in 23 European countries: Does the prevention paradox apply? Addiction, 107, 71–80.
WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!