Education Project Topics

Effects of Collaborative and Total Physical Response Strategies on Students’ Self-esteem and Performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Benue State

Effects of Collaborative and Total Physical Response Strategies on Students' Self-esteem and Performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Benue State

Effects of Collaborative and Total Physical Response Strategies on Students’ Self-esteem and Performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Benue State


Objectives of the Study

This research aims to achieve the following specific objectives:

  1. To examine the influence of collaborative learning strategies on the self-esteem of students in junior secondary schools in Benue State.
  2. To investigate the correlation between the application of Total Physical Response (TPR) strategies and the academic performance of students in the same educational context.
  3. To compare the effects of collaborative learning and TPR strategies, identifying which approach has a more substantial impact on both students’ self-esteem and academic performance in junior secondary schools within Benue State.



Conceptual Review

Collaborative Learning Strategies

Collaborative learning, a widely recognized pedagogical approach (Johnson & Johnson, 2009), involves students working together in groups to achieve shared learning objectives. This strategy fosters a cooperative learning environment where individuals contribute their unique perspectives to construct knowledge collectively. The principles underlying collaborative learning emphasize interdependence, positive intergroup relationships, face-to-face interaction, individual accountability, and collaborative skills development (Dillenbourg, 1999). These principles form the foundation upon which effective collaborative learning experiences are built.

Principles of Collaborative Learning

Collaborative learning is defined as a teaching method where students collaboratively engage in tasks and discussions to achieve learning goals (Bruffee, 2016). The principles of collaborative learning emphasize active engagement, peer interaction, shared responsibility for learning, and the exchange of diverse viewpoints. According to Slavin (1996), collaborative learning encourages students to engage in critical thinking, promote each other’s learning, and collectively address complex problems. This approach aligns with Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, which emphasizes the role of social interaction in cognitive development (Vygotsky, 1978). Collaborative learning leverages this theory by facilitating knowledge co-construction through meaningful interactions and shared experiences (Kirschner, 2002).

Benefits of Collaborative Learning for Students’ Self-esteem and Performance

Collaborative learning has been associated with numerous benefits for students’ self-esteem and academic performance. A study by Johnson and Johnson (1989) found that collaborative learning enhances self-esteem by promoting positive peer relationships and fostering a sense of belonging within the learning community. Collaborative learning environments provide students with opportunities to contribute, receive feedback, and experience success, leading to increased self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997). Moreover, collaborative learning nurtures a supportive atmosphere where students feel valued and empowered to share their ideas (Tinto, 1997).

Academic performance is also positively impacted by collaborative learning. Webb and Palincsar (1996) highlight that peer interactions in collaborative settings promote deeper understanding and improved retention of subject matter. Collaborative learning encourages active engagement and the application of higher-order cognitive skills (Bligh, 2018), contributing to improved comprehension and critical thinking. Additionally, students’ exposure to diverse perspectives enhances their ability to view problems from multiple angles, leading to more comprehensive problem-solving approaches (Johnson & Johnson, 2014).





This chapter presents the research methodology employed to investigate the impact of collaborative learning and Total Physical Response (TPR) strategies on students’ self-esteem and academic performance. The chapter offers a comprehensive overview of the research design, population, sampling technique, data collection methods, data analysis procedures, validity and reliability testing, and ethical considerations. The structured and rigorous methodological approach followed in this study aims to ensure the validity and credibility of the findings.

Research Design

Research design is the systematic and structured plan that outlines the framework and approach to conducting a research study (Creswell, 2014). It encompasses the strategies, procedures, and techniques employed to collect, analyze, and interpret data in line with the research objectives. In this study, a quantitative research design was utilized to investigate the impact of collaborative learning and Total Physical Response (TPR) strategies on students’ self-esteem and academic performance.

There are several types of research designs, each suited to different research objectives and methodologies. The quantitative research design, employed in this study, involves the collection of numerical data that can be quantified and statistically analyzed to identify patterns, correlations, and relationships (Creswell, 2014). This design allows for systematic exploration of cause-and-effect relationships the and generalizability of findings to a broader population. Other types of research designs include qualitative research design, which empan hasizes in-depth understanding of participants’ experiences and perspectives, and mixed-methods reseawhichdesign that combines both qualitative and quantitative approaches to gain a comprehensive understanding of the research topic (Creswell, 2014).

For this study, a purposive sampling technique was adopted to select participants. Purposive sampling involves the intentional selection of participants who possess specific characteristics or attributes that are relevant to the research objectives (Creswell, 2014). The decision to use purposive sampling was justified by the need to target students who have experienced collaborative learning and TPR strategies firsthand, thereby providing valuable insights into their impact on self-esteem and academic performance.



Data Presentation



Summary of Findings

The summary of findings from Tables 4.1 to 4.9 provides valuable insights into the demographic characteristics, experiences, and perceptions of the respondents in relation to collaborative learning and Total Physical Response (TPR) strategies. These findings shed light on the potential influence of these strategies on students’ self-esteem, academic performance, and overall learning experiences.

Table 4.1 displays the distribution of the questionnaire, indicating that out of the total 120 questionnaires distributed, 104 were returned and completed, resulting in a response rate of 86.7%. This high response rate is indicative of the participants’ willingness to engage in the study, suggesting a genuine interest in the research topic.

In Table 4.2, the gender distribution of the respondents shows a fairly balanced representation, with 52.9% being male and 47.1% female. This gender balance contributes to the robustness of the study’s findings, as it encompasses diverse perspectives and experiences.

Table 4.3 illustrates the age distribution of the respondents, revealing that the majority falls within the age groups of 11-13 (42.3%) and 14-15 (36.5%). This distribution corresponds to the target junior secondary school age range, confirming that the sample is appropriately aligned with the study’s scope.


In conclusion, the outcomes of the hypotheses testing in this study provide valuable insights into the effects of collaborative learning and Total Physical Response (TPR) strategies on students’ self-esteem and academic performance in junior secondary schools within Benue State. The findings shed light on the intricate dynamics of these teaching methods and their impact on students’ educational experiences.

The results of the one-sample t-test conducted on collaborative learning strategies (Table 4.22) revealed a statistically significant positive effect on students’ self-esteem. This outcome underscores the efficacy of collaborative learning in fostering a supportive and interactive learning environment, thereby contributing to students’ self-esteem enhancement. Similarly, the positive correlation found between the implementation of TPR strategies and academic performance (Table 4.23) emphasizes the potential of TPR to positively influence students’ academic achievements.


Based on the comprehensive exploration of collaborative learning and Total Physical Response (TPR) strategies and their impact on students’ self-esteem and academic performance in junior secondary schools in Benue State, several recommendations emerge:

  1. Integration of Innovative Strategies: Educational institutions should incorporate collaborative learning and TPR strategies into their curriculum design, fostering an active and engaging learning environment that promotes self-esteem and academic excellence.
  2. Professional Development for Educators: Teachers should undergo continuous professional development programs that equip them with the knowledge and skills to effectively implement collaborative learning and TPR strategies, ensuring optimal outcomes for students.

Contribution to Knowledge

This study on the impact of collaborative learning and Total Physical Response (TPR) strategies on students’ self-esteem and academic performance in junior secondary schools in Benue State contributes significantly to the existing body of knowledge in several key areas.

Firstly, this study addresses a notable gap in the literature by focusing on the Nigerian educational context, particularly in Benue State. While previous research has explored the effects of these strategies in diverse settings, there is a scarcity of empirical studies that investigate their impact within the Nigerian cultural and educational landscape. By conducting research in this specific context, the study offers insights that are culturally relevant and contextually sensitive, shedding light on the applicability and effectiveness of collaborative learning and TPR strategies in a Nigerian setting.

Secondly, the study contributes to the understanding of how innovative teaching methods can enhance students’ self-esteem and academic performance. By empirically demonstrating the positive effects of collaborative learning and TPR strategies on students’ self-esteem, academic engagement, and performance, the study reinforces the value of learner-centered approaches. This not only confirms the theoretical underpinnings of these strategies but also provides empirical evidence of their practical impact on students’ holistic development.

Furthermore, the study’s incorporation of multiple data sources, including quantitative survey responses, enriches the research landscape by presenting a comprehensive picture of the relationships between teaching strategies, self-esteem, and academic performance. The mixed-methods approach allows for a nuanced exploration of the research questions, combining quantitative data’s statistical rigor with qualitative insights into students’ perceptions and experiences.

Implication of the Study

The implications of this study are far-reaching, encompassing various aspects of education, pedagogy, and policy development. The findings offer insights that hold significance for educators, students, educational institutions, policymakers, and future research endeavors.

Firstly, for educators and teaching practitioners, the study’s outcomes underline the potential of collaborative learning and TPR strategies to positively influence students’ self-esteem and academic performance. Educators can draw on these findings to design and implement more engaging and student-centered teaching approaches. By creating interactive and dynamic learning environments that incorporate collaborative learning and TPR techniques, educators can foster increased engagement, active participation, and improved academic outcomes among students.

Secondly, the study’s implications extend to students themselves. Students who experience enhanced self-esteem and improved academic performance due to collaborative learning and TPR strategies are likely to exhibit higher levels of motivation, confidence, and a sense of belonging. These outcomes contribute not only to their immediate academic experiences but also to their long-term personal and professional development.


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