Effects of Motivational Incentives on Business Teachers Performance in Teaching Business Studies
PUROPSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of teachers’ motivation on productivity in secondary schools. The study specifically seeks to:
- Ascertain the performance of teachers in teaching business studies’ based on motivational incentive.
- Identify the type of intrinsic motivation available for teachers’ effectiveness in secondary school in Ezza North L.G.A of Ebonyi State.
- Examine the factors militating against the effectiveness of teachers’ motivation in secondary schools in Ezza North L.G.A. of Ebonyi State.
Definition of Motivation
Motivation has been a subject of concern in the past twenty years and has established itself as an integral part in current organizational settings. Motivation is quite complex subject to comprehend thus placing awareness to the fact that several factors influence employees’ performance in a particular organization.
This implies that what motivates one worker in one organization was not definitely motivate the other employee even within the same organization Due to this complexity, various definitions have been put forward and only a few of them were briefly examined.
McShane et al (2003, p. 132) defines motivation as “…A factor that exists in an individual which has the potential to affect the way, strength and eagerness of behaving towards work”. This definition of motivation has been supported by Petri & Govern (2003,) who reiterated that, “motivation is the thought that explains the propelling force in an individual that explains differences in intensity of behavior”.
Motivated employees were willing to devote time to a certain level of commitment for a particular objective in an organization. Certain actions which include changing jobs that employees perform, bringing down the levels of hierarchy and relegating many employees in the motivation process are significant enough to damage the levels of trust and commitment necessary for employees to perform above work requirements. Moreover, employee needs are changing as younger generations of employees have different expectations for their work than older workers. This is as a result of globalization which has made workforce variations of the complex issue of motivation. (McShane & Von Glinow 2003, p. 132).
Motivation is the thought that explains the propelling force in an individual that explains differences in intensity of behavior” (Petri & Govern 2004,). There are two types of motivation present in the workplace: intrinsic and extrinsic (Adam 2007, p. 230). By that it means that job related variables affecting motivation have intrinsic and motivational incentiveal values that drive the employees to perform. Given that most employees are intrinsically and extrinsically motivated simultaneously, hence a conclusion can be made that intrinsic and motivational incentive are not mutually exclusive (Deci & Ryan 2000).
Importance of Motivation in Secondary schools
Motivation is an important in the teaming process. Motivation implies arousal and maintenance of interest in the learning or doing an activity. For example, motivation plays a vital role in learning by bringing the learners to the proper frame of mind for learning. It concentrates the attention and energy of a person on activity or knowledge to the learnt in (Bhatia 1997). One of the major tasks of heads of school is to motivate staff in the organization to perform at high levels. This implies getting the staff to work hard, come to work regularly and make positive contributions to the organization’s mission. However, job performance depends on the environment within which the work is operating as well as on motivation itself (Griffin 2008; Mcshane, et al 2000 ;). It is thus, an important tool that is often under- utilized by heads of educational institutions.
Heads of organizations use motivation tools in workplace to inspire teachers to work both individually and in groups to produce the best possible results for education in most efficient and effective manner. Some of the motivation is generated from outside, while others come from within an individual. Employees by either of these sources of motivation to meet their individual as well as organizational goals. In this regard it is the duty of heads of institutions and sponsoring ministry of education to carefully identify and address these motivating forces (Griffin et al 2000, Griffin 2008).
Theories on Work Motivation
For the purpose of this study, the research considered the following work motivation theories to be vital in this study: the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and Herzberg’s Motivation–hygiene theory and each was discussed in some details.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Different scholars have put forth different explanations on how motivation can be achieved within a company or an organization. Prominent amongst them is Maslow with the theory of “Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs”. Consequently, Maslow in 1943 reasoned that human beings have an internal need pushing them on towards self actualization (fulfillment) and personal superiority. Maslow came up with the view that there are five different levels of needs and once we happen to satisfy a need at one stage or level of the hierarchy it has an influence on our behavior. At such levels our behavior tends to diminish, we now put forth a more powerful influence on our behavior for the need at the next level up the hierarchy.
Firstly, individuals are motivated by Physiological needs: By Maslow this physiological needs forms the basic need for survival and this may include food, warmth, clothing and shelter. When people are hungry, don’t have shelter or clothing, there are more motivated to fulfill this need because these needs become the major influence on their behavior. But on the other hand when people don’t have a deficiency in those basic needs (physiological needs), their needs tend to move to the second level where it is equally seen by Maslow as the highest order of needs. The second level is seen as the security needs: Security tends to be the most essential need for people at this level.
This is expressed in safety in the employee’s health and family. The third level of needs by Maslow was the social needs. When feeling secure and safe at work, employees placed job relations as their focus that is trying to build up a good friendship, love and intimacy. As we keep moving up the ladder have self–esteem needs: This fourth level of needs by Maslow presents the recognition to be accepted and valued by others.
The highest or last level of Maslow’s need is self–actualization needs: Self actualization was to develop into more and more what one is to become all that one is competent of becoming. Figure 2.1 illustrates Maslow´s five hierarchy of needs.
This study adopted a descriptive research design, which according to Cooper and Schindler (2003) involves surveying people and recording their responses for analysis. Within the descriptive research design, this study incorporated both quantitative and qualitative research approaches to better understand the relationship between variables in the research problem.
Geographical Area of Study
This study was being undertaken in Ezza L.G.A. of Ebonyi state. Ebonyi state is in the south eastern region of Nigeria.
The study targeted the heads of secondary schools and teachers from 18 public secondary schools in Ezza L.G.A.- Ebonyi state, also was targeted school teachers and department teachers. Table 3.1 shows a break-down of population categories in the study areas.
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
Background Information of Respondents
The findings in this section give general characteristics of the study population
Categories of Respondents
The study involved three categories of respondents’ namely ordinary teachers, department teachers and heads of schools of secondary schools in Ezza L.G.A., Ebonyi state. 130 of questionnaires were sent out and all questionnaires were returned complete and useable. This represents a rate of 100% which is above the industry average of 40% (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003). Apart from questionnaires, Interview was used to the 18 heads of school only.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Motivational incentives that influence teachers performance in teaching business studies in public secondary schools.
It can be concluded that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are considered important by teachers. However, those motivators that are presently offered to teachers in secondary schools appear not to have impact on teachers’ motivation level. In particular, teachers indicated even the extrinsic motivators such as salary and weekly duty allowance are inadequate to meet their basic needs.
Also not all extrinsic motivators were available to teachers in studying public secondary schools in Ezza L.G.A.. However, the majority of the respondents were concerned about the inadequacy of current salary levels to meet their basic needs. Thus the study found that extrinsic motivators were present to a small extent increased teachers’ morale to perform their duties at school. Overall the results imply that Intrinsic is a motivator and Extrinsic is a maintainer both affects performance of teachers in school.
In this research several issues of concern about the motivation of teachers and their performance in public secondary schools were identified. The following are recommendations to address them singly or separately.
First, the study revealed that salary level for teachers in studied public secondary schools was regarded to be below average income earner in Nigeria. The majority of teachers complained about the inadequacy of their salary levels not able to meet their basic needs in the face of increasing cost of living in Ebonyi state. This in lots of ways de-motivated teachers. The EVT in consultation with Teachers Representatives (CWT) should negotiate and set up an appropriate salary scale that is in tune with the current economic environment. This will not only ensure teachers get an adequate salary to meet at the basic needs but will also in many ways provide one of the important motivational incentiveal incentives for teachers to increase their performance at schools.
Furthermore, the findings revealed a lot of other motivational incentiveal factors such as free meals, free accommodation, weekly allowance and access to advance payment in case of urgent teachers’ requirements were not available to teachers in most secondary schools. These have resulted in high levels of de-motivation to teachers. The EVT should increase the current teacher’s allowances in school and make them available to every school so that teachers will get motivated to go the extra mile to work hard and improve students’ performance. Accommodation needs to be provided to teacher to enable them live near schools since most of them reported to be living far away from their schools as they search for cheap accommodation. This would reduce lateness and absenteeism at school. It will also enable teachers to stay extra hours after school to give extra coaching to weak students and/or complete the set syllabus on time.
The study further revealed that although motivational incentiveal factors were important, teachers emphasized intrinsic motivation such as recognition for achievement, being given more responsibility, work environment and personal growth in terms of training and development were what they needed for sustained motivation. Thus, the heads of school should incorporate these motivation practices/tools in school management to enable teachers to be sustainable motivated and keep their performance at a high level.
The research also noted there is poor or little internal and external supervision. Teachers do what they please and as a result the standard at school have dropped to an alarming low level.The supervision by MoEVT should strengthen and a circuit of supervisors be appointed to do a routine inspection in schools to stop teachers from participating in secondary employment or not taking their work seriously. This will motivate teachers to be more regular and arrive early at school and avoid divided attention of searching for side employment. Their performance will also improve.
The study also revealed that there is inadequate or absence of teaching materials for teachers as well as for student learning. This has resulted in teachers teaching outside the syllabus and thus not able to prepare students well for their national examination. The MoEVT in conjunction with Regional Education Authorities should supply each school with relevant and adequate study and teaching materials. This will ensure students across all schools in the country are taught what in the syllabus and get them better prepared for national examinations. This will also motivate teachers to teach students within the syllabus and complete the relevant materials on time.
Lastly, one of the key intrinsic Motivational incentives for teachers is professional training and development. This was noted to be lacking in studied public secondary schools and demotivated teachers who wanted to advance their career in education. MoEVT should develop a national training and development policy and award programs based on performance, to enable teachers to upgrade their knowledge and skills. This will encourage them not only national competition among teachers but will also motivate them for high performance.
- Aacha M (2010), Motivation and the performance of primary school teachers in Uganda: a case of Kimaanya-Kyabakuza division, Masaka District. Master of Arts in Social sector Planning and Management of Makerere University, Uganda.
- Adams J (2007), Managing people in organizations; Contemporary Theory and Practice, Palgave Macmillian.
- Adam J at el. (2008) Research methods for business and social studies, Morogoro Mzumbe book project, Morogoro.
- Akah N W (2010) Employee motivation and performance in Ultimate Companion Limited, Douala-Cameroon, Masters Degree Dissertation
- Alderfer, C. P. (1969). An empirical test of a new theory of human needs.
- Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4, 143-175.
- Amin, M.E.(2005). Social Science Research Conception, Methodology and Analysis. Kampala, Uganda.
- Analoui, F (2000). What motivates senior managers? The case of Romania. Journal of Managerial Psychology, Volume 15, Number 4, pp: 324-340. University of Bradford, Bradford, UK. Approach. ACTS press, Nairobi, Kenya.
- Baumeister, R. F., & Voh, K. D. (2004). Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory and applications. New York: Guilford Press.
- Barlett.J.E, Kotrlink J. W & Higgins.C.C,(2001).Organization Research. Journal Vol.19,No 1,spring 2001.
- Bennell P.S, and Mukyanuzi F (2005), Is there a teacher motivation Crisis in Nigeria?
- Bennell, P. and Akyeampong K. (2007). Teacher Motivation in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. DFID Researching the Issues, 71: Knowledge and Skills for Development, Brighton.
- Bennell, P.S., Hyde, K and Swainson, N (2002), the Impact of HIV/AIDS on The Sector In Sub- Saharan Africa. The Main Findings and Recommendations of a Three Country Study. Centre for International Education. Sussex University, Brighton
- Bennell, P.S., J. Harding and S. Rogers-Wright (2004), PSRP Education Sector Review In Sierra Leone. Ministry of Education. Science and Technology, Freetown.