Electric Power Consumption Reduction in a Distribution Network a Case Study of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Campus)
Objectives of the Study
The aim of this project is to evaluate how energy saving devices and technology can be applied as a tool for energy conservation.
The objectives of the project are as follows:
- Review energy saving devices and technology.
- Evaluate existing energy consumption of the UNN community and the cost.
- Evaluate energy consumption of the UNN community replaced with energy saving devices and technology and the cost.
- Determination of the amount of energy saved and the cost during the period considered.
Historical Overview of Energy Efficiency
Energy efficiency measures came as a logical and natural response to the oil price increases of 1973-1974 and 1979-1980. The shock experienced mostly by the highly energy intensive consuming nations of the Western world intensified the need to cut down on energy consumption. Many industrialized countries were forced to review their existing energy policies and incorporate energy conservation and end-use efficiency improvements as an important component of their national energy policy . In the process, a new era of change was born; an era of possibly greater fundamental significance than the industrial revolution, the era of rational use of energy. Emergency energy conservation measures were launched by many governments. In Japan and South Korea for instance, national energy conservation centers were established as parastatals budget organizations to implement national energy conservation programs (Energy conservation Centre of Japan, ECCJ; Korean Energy Management Corporation, KEMCO). At the time the governments of Australia and New Zealand also place emphasis on projects aimed at reducing energy import requirements. It is important to mention that the former global and regional interest in energy conservation has in recent years been gradually replaced by a growing and sustained interest in energy efficiency, both on the supply as well as the demand side. Prevailing policy goals and concepts have shifted from “energy conservation” to “energy efficiency” and from “energy inputs” to the “effectiveness of energy use” and “energy services” . In a wider context the increasing role of active energy efficiency promotion in achieving environmental sustainability and economic development has long been recognized by many nations. The recognition has led many national governments to adopt or formulate policies for the promotion of rational use of energysince the beginning of 1990s.
In Nigeria since the year 2003 the Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN) in collaboration with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and other stakeholders has made steady progress in awareness creation in the area of energy efficiency programs.
In pursuance of its mandate, the Energy Commission of Nigeria has produced an energy master plan with energy efficiency at the center of its activities. To give effect to the urgent need for energy efficiency programs in Nigeria and to accelerate the implementation programs, National center for energy efficiency (NCEE) was recently established by the commission at the University of Lagos, Nigeria. Activities in the area of energy efficiency rose to a high level in the year 2009 when the Commission in collaboration with the Cuban government embarked upon the replacement of highly inefficient incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) at the domestic level in different parts of the country. The program which is still on-going has been followed by massive national energy efficiency awareness campaign workshops and energy audit talk covering public buildings, various types of industry and the domestic sector. The overall aim of the workshops has been to raise national awareness on industrial, institutional and household energy savings potentials in meeting national energy demand in Nigeria .
Energy efficiency can be seen as a measure of describing how much useful work can be obtained from a system from a given amount of input energy . By energy efficiency, it does not mean that we should not use energy, rather that we should use energy in a manner that will minimize the amount of energy needed to provide certain services. Energy efficiency therefore entails improvement in practices and products that reduce the energy necessary to provide services. For example, to light a room with an incandescent light bulb of 60 W for one hour requires 60 W/h (that is 60 watts per hour). A compact fluorescent light bulb would provide the same or better light at 11 W and only use 11 W/h. this means that 49 W (82% of energy) is saved for each hour the light is turned on. If we use energy efficient appliances, it will help to reduce the energy necessary to provide services like lighting, cooling, heating, manufacturing, cooking, transport, entertainment etc. Hence, energy efficiency products (devices and technology) essentially help to do more work with less energy . Promoting energy efficiency is one of climate change mitigation strategies.
UNN 11kV DISTRIBUTION NETWORK
University of Nigeria Nsukka Distribution System
Power is supplied to the University of Nigeria, Nsukka from Enugu road Injection substation through UNN switch yard within UNN premises. The switch yard houses three 33/11kV, 5MVA step down transformers, metering equipment and oil circuit breakers that protect the transformers. One of the 33/11kV, 5MVA transformer supplies power to the UNN medical Centre while the other two transformers supply power to the rest of the University Community in Nsukka campus both residential and administrative buildings. It has 11kV Ring distribution network through two parallel 300mm2 underground armored Ring feeder cables at 11kV.
UNN LIGHTING LOAD AUDIT AND ANALYSIS
There are seventeen (17) Halls of residence for both the undergraduate and the post graduate students on campus, and the load network is shown in figure 4 .1 below:
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The energy Consumption profile of UNN has been presented and this research work provides alternative means of reducing power consumption pattern in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka to 40% by direct replacement of incandescent bulbs with energy saving lamps. The reduction in both lighting and non-lighting loads audits is about 83% at constant reduction techniques for non-lighting load audits which translates to an average of ₦11m savings every months.
Some recommendations in the course of this research work to the power supply consumers/UNN Communities and the relevant authorities are as follows:
- The security lights should be switched OFF during the day time.
- The University Community should encourage the use of the energy saving light in all the Faculties, Administrative and the residential buildings.
- There should be power supply operating manual with instructions on how to make use of the power supply.
- Introduce energy saving lamps, fans, and air-conditioners to replace the conventional ones.
- During bed time, some lighting loads should be switched OFF.
- There should always be enlightenment programs or awareness to power consumers.
- Faulty metering management should be discouraged by the PHCN.
- Power consumers should stop vandalizing PHCN properties in order to encourage steady Power supply.
- Sensitize the University Community about energy conservation (turning off switches of lightings, devices and equipment when not in use)
- Introduce automatic dusk (on)/dawn (off) switches for streets and security lights.
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