Business Administration Project Topics

Employing Total Quality Management and Its Impact on Organizational Performance. (A Case Study of Unilever Nigeria Plc).

Employing Total Quality Management and Its Impact on Organizational Performance. (A Case Study of Unilever Nigeria Plc).

Employing Total Quality Management and Its Impact on Organizational Performance. (A Case Study of Unilever Nigeria Plc).

Chapter One 


The following are the objective of the study. Generally the study examines the relationship between total quality management and organizational performance.

  • Specifically its examine the relationship between total quality management and organization transformation
  • It examined the relationship between total quality management and customer satisfaction.




This chapter focused on the conceptual framework, the empirical literature related to this study and the theoretical framework upon which this study was based on.

 Conceptual Review

Concept of Quality

Quality speaks of authenticity, high standard, integrity and value not just in organizations or products and services but in every aspect of human life. The need for quality as a fundamental component in the formulation of strategies for institutions to implement TQM is clearly outlined by Bilich and Neto (2000) who state that quality, as a macro function of institutions, must be present in the day-to-day running of an institution, in aspects such as establishment of policies, the decision process, selection of personnel, allocation of resources, definition of priorities and service delivery to satisfy customer requirements. According to Djerdjour and Patel (2000), quality is no longer an optional extra; it is an essential strategy to survive.

TQM is therefore a solution for improving the quality of products and services. Before one can discuss the concept of TQM, one first needs to discuss, understand and analyze the concept of ‘quality’ itself. According to Dale (2003) and Evans and Dean (2003) quality, reliability, delivery and price build the reputation enjoyed by an institution. Quality is the most important of these competitive weapons and is an extremely difficult concept to define in a few words in order to agree on a consensus definition; a trait it shares with many phenomena in business and social sciences (Hoyer and Hoyer 2001). Quality does not only refer to goods and services but includes quality of time, place, equipment and tools, processes, people, the environment and safety, information and measurement (Dale 2003).

Quality is an ongoing process that has to be so pervasive throughout the institution, that it becomes the philosophy and culture of the whole institution. All institutions and each department within the institution need to adopt the same strategy, to serve the customer with even better quality, lower cost, quicker response and greater flexibility (Schonberger 1990).

There appears to be no uniform understanding and definition of the meaning of the term quality and even well-known authors seem to have different perspectives on this issue. According to Reeves and Bednar (1994), a search for the definition of quality has yielded inconsistent results. The two researchers emphasize that regardless of the time period or context in which quality is examined, the concept has had multiple and often muddled definitions and has been used to describe a wide variety of phenomena.

The strategies and tools for assuring quality may have changed, but the basic customer expectations have been fairly constant for a long time (Hoyer and Hoyer 2001).

Although many definitions of quality exist, it is prudent to create a deeper insight into the definitions of researchers such as the quality gurus, Deming, Crosby, Feigenbaum, Ishikawa and Juran. These gurus claim that their definitions, prescriptions, conclusions and recommendations work equally well for producing products and delivering services. From the various definitions of quality indicated by these gurus in literature, there seem to be two levels in the concept of quality (Hoyer and Hoyer 2001), namely:

  1. level one, by producing products or delivering services whose measurable characteristics satisfy a fixed set of specifications; and
  2. Level two, products and services that satisfy customer expectations for their use or consumption.

Aksu (2003) defines quality as: “the conformance to a set of customer requirements that, if met, result in a product or service that is fit for its intended use.” Wiele, Dale and Williams (2003) present a slightly different perspective with their emphasis on the artistic and energetic properties of quality: “Quality is what surprises and delights the customer.” Pycraft, Singh and Phihlela (2000) and Stamatis (2003) try to reconcile some of these different views in their definition of quality:

“Quality is consistent conformance to customers’ expectations.” With reference to Pycraft and Stamatis’s definition of quality, the use of the word “conformance” implies that there is a need to meet a clear specification (the manufacturing approach). The definitions of  Aksu (2003) support this viewpoint of quality. The use of “customers’ expectations” attempts to combine the user and value based approaches.








In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.


Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.


According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.

This study was carried to examine Employing Total Quality Management and Its Impact On Organizational Performance. Unilever Nigeria Plc form the population of the study.




This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.




It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain Employing Total Quality Management and Its Impact On Organizational Performance. (A Case Study Of Unilever Nigeria Plc).. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing Employing Total Quality Management and Its Impact On Organizational Performance.


This study was on Employing Total Quality Management and Its Impact on Organizational Performance. (A Case Study Of Unilever Nigeria Plc). Two objectives were raised which included: Specifically its examine the relationship between total quality management and organization transformation and  examined the relationship between total quality management and customer satisfaction. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from Unilever Nigeria Plc. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).


The study provided and analyzed relevant data on Total Quality Management and organizational performance a study of Unilever Nigeria Plc. It concludes that TQM has a positive, although relatively high impact on the performance of Unilever Nigeria Plc. The research also concludes that external influences like the business environment can limit the operation of TQM in Nigeria Unilever Nigeria Plc. However, modern Accounting techniques such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Just in Time (JIT), and Activity Based Costing (ABC) could also be considered as an alternate concept that would increase organizational performance.

Finally, this researcher concludes that based on past research works, a TQM program will be more effective in increasing the profitability, reducing cost through waste removal and increasing organizations revenue in Nigeria


From the above the researcher made the following recommendations

  • Periodic training should be organized by the management of the company, to equip the employees with the knowledge of quality improvement techniques.
  • Stipulated measures should be put in place on how materials for production would be selected.

The management should spell out standards of their products, so as to ensure that any product that is below standard would be improved upon by their correction measure.



  • Ahire, S.L., Golhar, D.Y., Waller, M.A. (1996). Development and validation of TQM implementation constructs, Decision Sciences, 27 (1), 23-56.
  • Aksu, M.B. (2003);        Total Quality Management and Business Excellence. International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 105, Issue, January, 2007. Pgs 79-96.
  • Barnes, D. (2008):Operations Management, an International Perspective. Italy; G-canale & Co.
  • Bilich, F., & Neto, A. A. (2000). Total quality management: quality macro-function model for banks. Total Quality Management, 11(1), 5-15.
  • Boaden, R.J. (1999): What is Total Quality Management…and does it matter?
  • Dale, E. G. (2003);         Managing Quality. (4thed). Hertforeisher; Preatice Hall.
  • Dean, J.W & Bowen, D.E (1994): Management and TotalQuality; Academy of Management Review. 19 (3), Pgs. 392 – 418.
  • Deming, W.E (1998): Out of the crisis. Cambridge, M. A; Massachusetts Institute of Technology.



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