Entrepreneurship Project Topics

Entrepreneurship Marketing and Nigerian Youth Action

Entrepreneurship Marketing and Nigerian Youth Action

Entrepreneurship Marketing and Nigerian Youth Action

Chapter One

Research Objectives

The general objective of this research was to establish the entrepreneurship marketing and Nigerian youth action under the YEDF in Lagos state.

The specific objectives were;

  1. To establish level and quality of entrepreneurship marketing.
  2. To establish the level of growth and development of youth enterprises.
  3. To establish the relationship between quality of entrepreneurship marketing and level of enterprise growth and development.




This chapter provides a review of relevant literature on entrepreneurship marketing, growth and development of youth enterprises from the global and Nigerian perspectives.

Theoretical Background  

Various writers have developed several theories on entrepreneurship and popularized the concept.

Theory of Reasoned Behaviour

Theory of reasoned behavior as advocated by Ajzen and Fishbein (1975) declare that behavior is influenced by one’s intention to engage in that behavior. This implies intention comes before actual behavior and can therefore be compared to the training facilities by government institutions (Ringa and Kyalo, 2013). This theory recognizes that factors such as norms or expectations of other people influence of attitude on behavior. This means that whenever a person’s attitudes lead him to do one thing but the relevant norms suggest he should do something else, both factors influence his behavioral intentions. Human behavior is goal-seeking, people try to achieve objectives or goals which when readied will satisfy their needs. For example, food will satisfy the hunger need (Graham and Bennett, 1995). Applying a behavioral approach enables understanding youth entrepreneurship as it is easier to observe what and how people do as opposed to trying to identify their specific entrepreneurial traits and qualities implying that entrepreneurship is inborn and cannot be learnt.

Human Capital Theory

Empirical studies show that human capital factors are positively related to becoming entrepreneurs. According to Becker (1975), the knowledge gained from education and experience represents a resource that is central to understanding of opportunity identification and exploitation. Human capital approach emphasizes behavioral aspects of skills, innovation and risk-taking for developing and managing new enterprises (Dejaeghere, 2014).  Identification of specific youth needs and designing of youth oriented learning programmes, including extracurricular training is critical in creating jobs through enterprise development (United Nations, 2014).  Creating entrepreneurial societies starts with education that fosters creativity, problem solving skills, positive risk-taking and enterprising mindsets for young people. Young people often lack necessary skills to develop their business ideas, such as preparing market analysis, differentiating products from competition, preparing cash-flow statements and presenting a case for financial support. (White and Kenyon, 2001). This theory will be important in this study since previous research has indicated that many individuals from different economic, social and educational backgrounds become entrepreneurs without undergoing any training while others do so only after training (Gichira, 1997).

Sociological Theory

Socio-cultural factors have significant influence on entrepreneurship. Sociological theory avers that individuals have no self drive but are driven by social background. According to Saleemi (2009), no universal theory can be developed for all cultures. The experiences of people could influence their thoughts and actions so they want to do something meaningful with their lives. Entrepreneurs have been shown to be particularly sensitive to peer pressure and general social norms in the community, as well as pressures from their competitors. The differences between entrepreneurs in different types of communities and in different countries reflect the general norms and values of communities and countries involved (Hisrich et al, 2007). Entrepreneurship is likely to get a boost in a particular social culture. Society values, religious beliefs, customs, taboos influence the behavior of individuals in a society. (Saleemi, 2009). For example, a pork trader is bound to face difficulties doing business in coast and north eastern regions in Nigeria which are largely inhabited by muslim community who do no consume pork owing to their religious beliefs.

Psychological Theory

According to psychologists, entrepreneurship is most likely to emerge when a society has sufficient supply of individuals possessing particular psychological characteristics. An entrepreneur is more than someone who just invests money or manages a business. He must be someone who initiates an undertaking, a self-starter, willing to come out of his comfort zone and overcome his fears and weaknesses (Kiunga, 2009). People with certain set of psychological traits such as risk taking, innovativeness and tolerance for ambiguity have a tendency to exhibit some degree of entrepreneurship. This view holds that entrepreneurs are born with certain traits that predispose them to become entrepreneurs.




This chapter presents the research methodology to be used in the research. It consists of research design, target population, sampling method, data collection and analysis. In this study we will explore how efforts of entrepreneurship marketing have impacted the growth and development of youth enterprises in Lagos state.

Research Design

The research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data (Kothari, 2004).

The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive design to collect data from members of the population considering entrepreneurship marketing and enterprise growth and development as the various variables. The research design was appropriate since the study sought to describe the quality of entrepreneurship marketing and characteristics of the youth groups.


The population comprised of the 238 youth enterprises financed by the YEDF in Lagos state. The necessary information relating to the groups was obtained from the fund’s constituency office located in Lagos Mainland. A request to access information had been submitted to the fund’s head office and authority granted.


An optimum size of sample is one which fulfills the requirements of efficiency, representativeness, reliability and flexibility (Kothari, 2004). A stratified random sampling method was applied in order to ensure the sample had same composition and characteristics as the population. Since it was not possible to administer the research questions to all the youth enterprises, 10 youth enterprises were randomly obtained from each of the five political wards to form an overall sample comprising 50 youth enterprises. The sample was considered adequate as it ensured every entity out of the target population of 238 enterprises had an equal chance of being selected.

 Data Collection  

The study utilized both primary and secondary data. The primary data was collected through structured questionnaires as the only convenient means of data collection. The questionnaires were disbursed face to face to the owners or managers of the enterprises. Sections of the questionnaire included; Enterprise details, Entrepreneurship marketing, Enterprise growth and Enterprise development. Secondary data was obtained from records at the constituency office of the YEDF located in Lagos Mainland. A request to access information was submitted to the fund’s head office and authority granted.




The study took place in September and October 2015 with the objective of establishing the entrepreneurship marketing and Nigerian youth action under YEDF in Lagos state. The study targeted a population of 238 enterprises with a respondent sample comprising 50 youth enterprises whereby all the respondents filled the questionnaires resulting to a 100% response rate. The response rate was achieved through repeated visits with the help of the youth officer to locate the owners and managers of the enterprises.



This chapter presents summary of the research findings, conclusion and recommendations. The study aimed at establishing whether the quality of entrepreneurship marketing offered to the beneficiaries of YEDF had a positive impact on growth and development of youth enterprises.


The study found out the content of entrepreneurship marketing and competence of the trainers was not adequate to prepare the beneficiaries with the required skills for entrepreneurship. The duration of training was also not sufficient to accord trainees practical training and exposure. The entrepreneurship marketing was found to have limitations especially on the curriculum content and process of delivery.

The study noted that youth who have been trained acknowledged to have benefited as they acquired knowledge on effective utilization of resources and provision of quality services and products. Therefore it was established that entrepreneurship marketing has the potential to positively impact on growth of enterprises. However, the survival rate and sustainability of most of the enterprises did not manifest significant growth and development since many of them had not operated for more than three years.

The research established a weak positive relationship between the quality of entrepreneurship marketing and growth and development of youth enterprises. It was noted the quality and level of training was compromised by inadequate training content and low competent trainers. However it was observed some young people were not clear as to why they sought entrepreneurship marketing and were most probably forced by scarcity of employment opportunities. This attitude might negate the impact of training since the trainees are not keen to acquire skills vital for growth of their enterprises.  


Youth unemployment has been a great challenge leading to introduction of initiatives like YEDF in Nigeria. YEDF aims at building the capacity of youth enterprises that benefit from the fund through entrepreneurship marketing. The idea by government to establish YEDF is a noble one that should be embraced by all stakeholders desiring to empower the youth.

However, the quality of entrepreneurship marketing being given to the youth is not capable of adequately equipping them with all the necessary skills. There is therefore need to revise the curriculum being used by YEDF in order to include other training areas such internship and mentorship with the aim of improving performance and survival rates of youth enterprises. Entrepreneurship skills are a composite set of skills, attributes, qualities and beliefs which should be acquired through a combination of curriculum-based learning of role models and life experience.

Growth and development of youth enterprises suffer setbacks encountered in small and mediumsize enterprises sector whereby majority of them do not celebrate their third birthday. Therefore the level of growth and development of these ventures remain latent although there is potential for growth. Youth entrepreneurs often face unique challenges that may impede their growth and therefore should be assisted to overcome them. These issues are such as lack of experience which can be addressed through mentorship and practical experience involving exposure from established entrepreneurs. The success and growth of youth enterprises should not be defined by profitability only but also by their survival and sustainability.


Entrepreneurship marketing should incorporate mentorship programs to provide informal guidance and advice from successful entrepreneurs who have good business experience and networks. The training should also have an element of internship in order to allow trainees gain some experience before starting their own enterprises. There is need to enhance competence of the trainers through extensive training and continued support. It would be important to conduct a research on the specific and unique challenges encountered by the beneficiaries of YEDF.

Limitations of the Study

The questionnaire approach proved time consuming and expensive to reach the scattered enterprises. Some of the respondents might not objective when the researcher was accompanied by the youth officer who is one of the trainers. The literacy level was a challenge as manifested by some of the responses in the questionnaires.  Growth and development of youth enterprises may be influenced by different factors from entrepreneurship marketing which have not been considered in this study. This study focused on the entrepreneurship marketing provided by YEDF to the beneficiaries of the fund. Entrepreneurship marketing by other entities might show a different situation.


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