Environmental Effects of the Use of Agro- Chemicals for Rice Cultivation in Ufuma, Orumba North Local Government Area; Anambra State
Objective of the study
The broad objective of the research is to find out the potential risks of the use of agrochemical for rice cultivation on the environment and human health. The specific objectives are;
- To determine the farmers‘ knowledge, attitudes and practices on agrochemical application in crop production.
- To establish the farmers source of information regarding the use agrochemical.
- To determine the types and quantities of agrochemical used by farmers in their major production processes in the study area.
- To identify the environmental and human health adverse effects associated with agrochemical usage
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Our focus in this chapter is to critically examine relevant literature that would assist in explaining the research problem and furthermore recognize the efforts of scholars who had previously contributed immensely to similar research. The chapter intends to deepen the understanding of the study and close the perceived gaps.
Precisely, the chapter will be considered in three sub-headings:
Agrochemicals may be defined as products which include fertilizers, fungicides, insecticides, nematicides, etc. to enhance the crop/plant growth (Biswas et al., 2014). The immense use of pesticides has affected the entire ecosystem and also microorganisms in soil (Onder et al., 2011). Weeds and insects are the major reducing biotic factors in agriculture and hamper crop yield, productivity, and resource use efficiency (Oliveira et al., 2014). These agrochemicals cause pollution and are costly (Bahadur et al., 2015). These agrochemicals enter the water bodies and cause pollution (Aktar et al., 2009). The pesticides going on accumulating in the soil residues and cause biomagnification in plants and animal tissues. This is dangerous to the humans and can cause health problems (Hans and Farooq, 2000). The microorganisms become resistant to the pesticides which is a serious issue. The use of pesticides has also killed fishes in many water bodies. In general, the effects of pesticides on microorganisms will vary depending on the chemical dosage, the properties of the soil and various environmental factors. The soil quality is affected due to reduction in organic matter, ultimately affecting soil microbiota and also soil microbial enzymes (Kalia and Gosal, 2011).
TYPES OF AGROCHEMICALS:
Fungicides: Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores. A fungistatic inhibits their growth. Fungi can cause serious damage in agriculture, resulting in critical losses of yield, quality, and profit.
TYPES OF FUNGICIDES
Inorganic fungicides: Inorganic fungicides are derived from sulfur or simple metal salts. They are generally stable, persistent, and insoluble in water. They include sulfur, which was originally applied as flowers of sulfur, in dust form, and which is still used, but in a more highly ground colloidal suspension. They include Bordeaux mixture, sulphur, mercuric chloride (HgCl2).
AREA OF STUDY
Anambra state is located in the south-eastern part of Nigeria, and comprises of 21 Local Government Areas which include Aguata, Awka North, Awka South, Anambra East, Anambra West, Anaocha, Ayamelum, Dunukofia, Ekwusigo, Idemili North, Idemili South, Ihiala, Njikoka, Nnewi North, Nnewi South, Ogbaru, Onitsha North, Onitsha South, Orumba North, Orumba South and Oyi. The state is sub-divided into four (Onitsha, Aguata, Awka and Anambra) agricultural zones to aid planning and rural development. Its name is an anglicized version of the original Oma Mbala, the Igbo name of the Anambra River. The state administrative head quarter is in Awka (Obianefo et al., 2019b).
The state is bounded with Delta State to the West, Imo State and Rivers State to the South, Enugu State to the East, and Kogi State to the North. The indigenous ethnic groups in Anambra state comprised of 98% Igbo and 2% Igala mainly living in the northwestern part of the state. Anambra East, West and Ayamelum (Anambra zone), Orumba North (Aguata zone) and Awka North (Awka zone) play a host community to the value development programme due to their comparative advantage in the rice and cassava production (FMARD, 2016).
Anambra State is situated between Latitudes 5°32ˈ and 6°45ˈ N and Longitude 6°43ˈ and 7°22ˈ E. The State has an estimated land area of 4,865sqkm2 with a population of 4,177828 people as at the last census (NPC, 2006). The State equally have an annual temperature and rainfall of 25.9oC and 138 mm respectively (Retrieved March 14, 2020 from Anambra Climate Summary)
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of Ninety (90) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which were returned and validated. For this study a total of 87 was validated for the analysis.
The table below shows the summary of the survey. A sample of 302 was calculated for this study.
Table 4.1: Distribution of Questionnaire
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary and Conclusion
The study delved into the effect of the use of agrochemical in rice farming using ufuma, Orumba North in Anambra State. Survey research design and convenience sampling method was employed for the study. Ninety(90) Questionaire was issues to the respondent and eighty-seven was retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed using frequency and tables which provided answers to the research questions.
Finding from the study reveals that:
14% of the rice farmers were negligible on the knowledge on the use of agrochemical. 34% had very little knowledge. 26% of the respondent had little knowledge. 26% of the respondent had enough knowledge.
57% of the respondent use agrochemical to increase yield, control pest and diseases. 26% uses it to improve rice appearance and marketability. 17% of the respondent uses it as advised by agricultural agent.
14% of the respondent said they get the information on the use of agrochemical through experience and using of different types of chemical over the years. 34% of the respondent said by agrochemical vendors. 26% of the respondent said through other farmers. 26% of the respondent said by what is affordable.
26% of the respondent apply agrochemical using hands from mixing basins. 57% uses the spraying tank. 17% of the respondent employ the service of agrochemical agents.
The study therefore concludes that
- Effect of agrochemical on the environment, includes, contamination of groundwater making it unfit for consumption and livestocks.
- Excess chemicals may lead to Eutrophication leading to extensive mortality of fishes and other aquatic animals.
- Excessive use of Agrochemicals leads to Contamination of crop products with harmful chemical residues.
- Agrochemical Pollutes the air, and released greenhouse gases, thereby bringing hazards to human health.
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