Environmental Management Project Topics

Environmental Sanitation Practices in Nigeria

Environmental Sanitation Practices in Nigeria

Environmental Sanitation Practices in Nigeria

Chapter One

Objective of the study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To assessed the socioeconomic characteristics of residents in the study area
  2. To ascertain the availability of environmental sanitation facilities and services
  3. To ascertain the residents’ environmental sanitation practices across the residential zones in the study area




In developing countries, waste management often emerges as a problem that endangers human health and the environment. To make matters worse, waste management usually has a low priority on the political agenda of such countries, as they are struggling with other important issues such as hunger, health problems, water shortages and unemployment. In such situations, it is easy to understand why waste problems have a tendency to grow steadily. Fast-growing population, poverty of large numbers of urban households, and persistent deterioration of living conditions are some of the challenges facing cities of the developing world (McMichael et al., 2000). Several researches in the past have focused on investigating the cost-benefits of providing safe and convenient living conditions to households in the developing world, especially on housing conditions, notably on the relationship between water, sanitation and disease (Cairncross, 1996; UN-HABITAT, 2006). These researches observed that water supply, sanitation and health are closely related. It is also evident that each year, poor hygiene, mismanagement of liquid or solid waste, and lack of sanitation facilities contribute to the death of millions of the world’s poorest people from preventable diseases (Cairncross, 1996). Considering the nexus Cleansing/sanitation and health, empirical evidence points to their close linkages. In particular, the relationship could be outlined as follows: C As cities continue to grow, the management of solid waste is becoming a major environmental and public health concern in urban areas of many developing countries C Lack of sanitation, unsafe disposal or storage of waste in/around houses and streets, and in undesignated containers may provide habitats for vectors of that cause various infectious diseases including amibiasis, typhoid fever and diarrhoeas (Ogawa, 2005) C Uncontrolled landfills are a huge danger for the surrounding environment and are a health risk to the population, causing contamination of the drinking water and soil (Fitzpatrick and Lagory, 2000) C More than five million people die each year from diseases related to inadequate waste disposal systems (WHO, 2007) C More than five million people die each year from diseases related to inadequate waste disposal systems (WHO, 2007); It is estimated that 1.8 million people die worldwide every year from diarrhoeal diseases (including cholera) Amongst them, 90% are children under 5 mostly in developing societies. An estimated 88% of this burden is attributed to unsafe drinking water supply, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene (Tumwine et al., 2002). These risk factors do not evenly threaten urban districts as slums and informal settlements are more vulnerable to communicable diseases (Kawachi and Berkman, 2003). Despite the quantity of studies carried out, relatively little is known about the key contribution of waste management in Diarrhoeal incidence. In particular, households’ refuse has rarely been examined. Among the regions of the world, Sub-Saharan Africa needs to fill the research gaps in the area, especially because the region has the fastest growing urban population and the majority of city dwellers have least access to urban equipments (Stren and Rodney, 1998). Under this backdrop, this study examines health outcomes in the context of rapid urban population growth without adequate accompanying services and infrastructure.







Research design

The researcher used descriptive research survey design in building up this project work the choice of this research design was considered appropriate because of its advantages of identifying attributes of a large population from a group of individuals. The design was suitable for the study as the study sought to environmental sanitation practice in Nigeria

Sources of data collection

Data were collected from two main sources namely:

(i)Primary source and

(ii)Secondary source

Primary source:

These are materials of statistical investigation which were collected by the research for a particular purpose. They can be obtained through a survey, observation questionnaire or as experiment; the researcher has adopted the questionnaire method for this study.

Secondary source:

These are data from textbook Journal handset etc. they arise as byproducts of the same other purposes. Example administration, various other unpublished works and write ups were also used.

Population of the study

Population of a study is a group of persons or aggregate items, things the researcher is interested in getting information on environmental sanitation practice in Nigeria. 200 residents of Uyo Local Government Area in Akwa Ibom State was selected randomly by the researcher as the population of the study.




Efforts will be made at this stage to present, analyze and interpret the data collected during the field survey.  This presentation will be based on the responses from the completed questionnaires. The result of this exercise will be summarized in tabular forms for easy references and analysis. It will also show answers to questions relating to the research questions for this research study. The researcher employed simple percentage in the analysis.




It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain environmental sanitation practices in Nigeria

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of  environmental sanitation practices in Nigeria


This study was environmental sanitation practices in Nigeria.  Four objectives were raised which included: To assessed the socioeconomic characteristics of residents in the study area, to ascertain the availability of environmental sanitation facilities and services and to ascertain the residents’ environmental sanitation practices across the residential zones in the study area. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 residents of Uyo local government of Akwa Ibom state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up returning civil servants, businessmen, married men and married women were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


 Place of residence, gender, educational attainment, household size and income can be used to explain variance in residents’ environmental sanitation practices in Uyo. There is low level of access to adequate environmental amenities such as pipe-borne water supply, toilets, drains and solid waste disposal services across the residential zones. This level however varied with residential zones in the city. This also indicates also low level of provision of environmental sanitation facilities in residents’ homes.  There are also poor environmental sanitation practices among residents in terms of utilization of the available environmental sanitation facilities. An instance is the disposal of solid waste in a manner that is not environmentally friendly


The residents should provide household environmental sanitation facilities while the government and Community Based Organizations (CBOs) should provide community environmental sanitation facilities and services

  • the government should enforce existing environmental sanitation regulations in order to sanction house owners without basic environmental sanitation facilities
  • Pro-environmental sanitation practices depend on effective environmental literacy. Thus, campaign to raise public awareness about environmental sanitation is essential in achieving success in environmental issues. This mind-set reorientation can be achieved through recruitment of trained young men and women who would engage residents one on one especially in the core on the need to be environmentally concerned.



  • Bashir S. A. (2002). Home is where the harm is: inadequate housing as a public health crisis. American Journal of Public Health 92(5):337– 738.
  •  Ayres R.E. (2000), “Expanding the Use of Environmental Trading Programs Into New Areas of
  •  Environmental Regulation”, Pace Environmental Law Review 18(1): 87-118.
  • Barbalace, R.C, (2003).The history of waste. Retrieved from http://environmental
  •  chemistry.com/yogi/environmental/waste/history.html Daramola, O. (2015). Clapping with one hand: The case of urban environmental sanitation practices in
  •  Nigeria. Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation 2: 223-228.
  • Ekong I. E. (2015) an assessment of environmental sanitation in an urban community in Southern Nigeria
  • African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology; 9(7):592-599 DOI: [10]. 10.5897/AJEST2015.1882
  •  Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Policy on Municipal and Agricultural Waste (MAW)
  •  Management, (Aug. 2012), retrieved from http://www.upops.org.ng/Portals/0/Final%20Draft%20%20National%20Policy%20on% 0MAW.pdf. This process may be paid for by state or municipal government or even by a private company for its own purposes (e.g. land utilization, etc.).(2016)
  •  WHO (1971) Technical Report Series No. 484: Solid Wastes Disposal and Control. Report of WHO Expert Committee, WHO Geneva. [16].



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