Business Education Project Topics

Evaluating the Effect of Administrative Planning Processes on Teaching and Learning Outcomes Outcome in Selected Faculties in University of Ilorin

Evaluating the Effect of Administrative Planning Processes on Teaching and Learning Outcomes Outcome in Selected Faculties in University of Ilorin

Evaluating the Effect of Administrative Planning Processes on Teaching and Learning Outcomes Outcome in Selected Faculties in University of Ilorin


Objectives of the Study

The study was set to achieve the following objectives:

  1. to determine  the influence of appraisal of school  systems performance on teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin of Ilorin; ii.  to examine the influence of school record assessment on teaching and learning outcomes in
  2. Selected faculties in the University of Ilorin;  iii. to find out the influence of assessment of lesson plans and notes on teaching and learning outcomes in Selected faculties in University of Ilorin; and iv. to ascertain the influence of continuous assessment on teaching and learning outcomes in Selected faculties in University of Ilorin.




This chapter intends to review what some authorities‟ and scholars had discussed in respect of some pertinent issues that concern the study at hand. The review centred on the concepts of: monitoring, evaluation, strategies, performance appraisal, school records, and continuous assessment. A review of empirical studies and summary were also taken into consideration in this chapter.

Conceptual Framework of the Study


Monitoring is regarded as a type of formative evaluation and continuous observation of implementation progress. Typically, monitoring makes use of routine management information to establish the extent to which targets, outcomes and/or goals are being achieved, and to identify changes occurring. Monitoring usually focuses on the on-going tracking of inputs, processes and outputs of a strategy or intervention over time. This accretion is buttress by Otu (2009) who said monitoring can be thought of as collecting information at regular intervals about on-going projects or programmes within the school system concerning the nature and level of their performance. it therefore not out of place to say regular monitoring provides bases for judging the impact of inputs that have been fed into the system. Southworth (2004) further stated that monitoring includes analysing and acting on students‟ progress and outcome of data observed, for example assessment and test scores are stronger when it is informed by data on students‟ learning, progress and achievements as well as by direct knowledge of teaching practices and classroom dynamics‟. He also continues that monitoring involves visiting classrooms, observing lecturers at work and providing them with feedback. From this analysis it implies that the administrative planning processes can only be effective if there is a feedback. This feedback to the lecturer, student and school administrators will help them to see areas they are doing well and the areas they are not doing well for the purpose of improvement. The improvement could be in the area of teaching quality, methodology and even standard of the available measurement based on the school assessed by the quality assurance officers.

Monitoring is the process through which the implementers of the project ensure that actual activities conform to the planned and intended programmes. It is employed to make things happen in accordance with the planned programmes and time frames initially specified. It is a systematic effort to compare performance with laid-down objectives and standards in order to determine whether progress is in line with them. Monitoring is therefore a systematic process of collecting, analysing and using information to track a programmes progress toward reaching its objectives and to guide on processes, such as when and where activities occur, who delivers them and how many people monitor them. In this regards monitoring can be referred to as process performance or formative evaluation since it is concerned with whether a programme is implemented in a manner that is consistent with its design. Besides, evaluators are interested in determining if: the inputs were delivered at the times and in the quantities envisaged by the planner; if activities occurred qualitatively and quantitatively in the manner prescribed by the planner; if resources were expanded at the times and levels outlined in the original plan; and, finally if the individuals and communities targeted by the plan were actually served by the project at hand.  





This chapter discuss the method used in the conduct of the research. It focuses on the research design, population, sample and sampling techniques, instrumentation, validity of the instrument, pilot study, reliability of the instrument, procedure for data collection and the analysis.

Research Design

The research design adopted for this study was a cross sectional survey being a descriptive and explanatory research which demands the technique of observation of the target respondents as a Dean means of data collection. The choice of the design was based on the fact that it allows for the collection of data from heterogeneous groups on which inferences drawn can be generalized on the entire population where data were collected. This is based on the suggestion of Sambo, (2007), his suggestions implied that for a study concerning large number of respondents, the survey method is desirable.




This chapter focuses on the presentation, analysis and discussion of result obtained from the analysis made. The research questions were answered using mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage. The hypotheses were tested using the one way Analysis of Variance.




This research work on evaluating the effect of administrative planning processes on teaching and learning outcomes outcome in selected faculties in university of Ilorin. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of appraisal of school systems performance on teaching and learning outcomes, examine the influence of school record assessment on teaching and learning outcomes, find out the impact of assessment of lesson plans and notes on teaching and learning outcomes, and to ascertain the influence of assessment of continuous assessment on teaching and learning outcomes in Selected faculties in University of Ilorin. The issues raised from the objectives led to the formulation of research questions and corresponding hypotheses. Related literatures were reviewed.  The research was conducted using the descriptive survey research design. Forty item  self-structured questionnaire tagged Influence of Administrative planning processes on Teaching and learning outcomes Questionnaire was used as instrument for collection of data using likert rating scale of strongly agree (SA), agree (A), Undecided (U), Disagree (D), and Strongly Disagree (SD). The instrument was validated by my supervisors in the department, the final draft copy was pilot tested and the result revealed it was reliable.  A total Population of 690 (187 Deans, 315 Quality Assurance Officers, and 188 Department of Policy Implementation Officials). 67 Deans, 113 QAO’s and 68 DPI  officials were selected using simple random sampling technique. The result of the findings led to retention of all the hypotheses. The study revealed that administrative planning processes by the Deans, QAO’s and DPI officials has great influence on teaching and learning outcomes in Selected faculties in University of Ilorina.


In this research titled evaluating the effect of administrative planning processes on teaching and learning outcomes outcome in selected faculties in university of Ilorin, the following conclusions were drawn.

The research revealed that, appraisal of school systems performance enhance high standard of educational system in the University of Ilorin. The decline in academic achievement of students is associated to poor monitoring of lecturers in terms of lesson planning and delivery.  Regular monitoring provides bases for judging the impact of input that has been fed into the system. It involves analysing and acting on students‟ progress and outcome data, monitoring enhances quality control and standardization of educational objectives (curriculum implementation), while on the other hand, evaluation is an exercise that seeks to provide credible and useful information to answer specific question to guide decision making by staff, managers and policy makers. It may assess relevance efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability.

Effective teaching requires proper planning which is dependent on a good lesson plan as supported by Onwurah (1999) who opined that, lesson notes serve as a reminder to the lecturer of what he is going to teach and how he intends to teach it. For instances if the lecturer of social studies mentioned above does not specify in his lesson note that he will use a board game to arouse his pupils interest, he might get carried away and forget to do this. The form of lesson notes encourages logical development and preparation. Because lesson notes follow a step – wise fashion, it’s easy for a lecturer to identify what should be discussed before the other. For instance, the child will be taught how to do addition by counting before being introduced to the addition sign „‟+‟‟. Lesson notes help to make a lecturer more confident. This is particularly so for beginning lecturers who will now be guided by the notes instead of relying on the head. Lesson notes direct the attention of the lecturer to methods and strategies for teaching. Because the lecturer lists the possible methods, techniques and strategies he will use in teaching, chances of his groping in the dark or pausing to think of method are reduced to a minimum.

Records of schools are not properly kept. School records are very vital in the smooth operation of the school which is in consonance with opinion of Olagboye (2004) who see school records as books, documents, diskettes and files in which are embodied information on what goes on in school (e.g. social, academic and non-academic activities, important events etc), the school plant as well as other relevant information which enhances the growth and development of the school. Hence, Deans must keep records of information about their schools as all records are very useful.

The records must be complete and be made available when the need arises. Records which are not regularly kept will be incomplete and misleading. Badly kept records can hinder the progress of the school. The Deans must see that school records are devoid of exaggerated reports or untrue statements. School records that contain untrue statements are worthless and show the type of personality the keeper of such records has. In a nutshell, properly kept and up to date records (both statutory and non-statutory) are for planning and budgeting purpose,  serve as indices for assessing school performance,  provides useful information not only for members of the school community but also for members of the public, employers of labours, researchers and government, it save the school from any un necessary embarrassment as well legal tussles, it aids administrative decision making and efficiency in the school, and it enable the lecturer know something about his pupils and through this, be in a better position to assist him academically, morally, socially et cetera. In addition to being able to predict his behaviour and provide needed information to whoever may need it.

Continuous assessment is a tool that enhances effective teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin because of its numerous advantages which included that, it is guidance oriented. This is in line with the assertion of USAID (2003) that, Continuous assessment is a powerful diagnostic tool that enables pupils to understand the areas in which they are having difficulty and to concentrate their efforts in those areas. It  also allows lecturers to monitor the impact of their lessons on pupil understanding. Lecturers can modify their pedagogical strategies to include the construction of remediation activities for pupils who are not working at the expected grade level and the creation of enrichment activities for pupils who are working at or above the expected grade level. Hence, the continuous assessment process supports a cycle of self-evaluation and pupil-specific activities by both pupils and lecturers.

Since it will involve data gathering over a long period of time, it will yield more accurate data reaching the lecturers early enough to modify instruction. This could play a vital role in diagnosing and remediating areas of learners‟ weaknesses. It places lecturers at the centre of all performance-assessment activities. It encourages more lecturer participation in the overall assessment or grading of his/her learners. Lecturers must be given opportunities to select and review assessments so that they become involved and knowledgeable in the process. Through this approach, lecturers would be able to integrate assessment and assessment results into instructional practice. Lecturers will be expected to incorporate assessment into the larger learning framework and possibly to provide evidence regarding how assessment information is used to inform and guide instruction for individual learners.


Based on the findings of this study the following recommendations have been proffered for effective Administrative planning processes on Teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin in Ilorin, Nigeria and even other educational sectors of the nation at all levels.

  1. Quality Assurance Officers, Department of Policy Implementation and Deans of schools should intensify on continues appraisal of schools system through regular supervision of school activities and prompt submission of their reports to appropriate authority.
  2. There should be frequent assessment of school records by Quality Assurance Officers, DPI and Deans for quality teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin of Ilorin through school supervision, inspection and monitoring.
  3. The lecturers should prepare lesson plans and schemes of work and the head of departments should ensure that these professional documents are prepared and used for effective teaching and learning outcomes to take place in the University of Ilorin of Ilorin.
  4. Continuous assessment records should feature prominently in the instructional supervision process of Quality Assurance Officers, DPI and Dean of schools, through checking of lecturer’s weekly/termly records for students.

Suggestions for Further Studies

The researcher at this juncture suggests that similar studies should be carried out in other parts of the country to widen the scope of research on The administrative planning processes. Specifically studies should be conducted on:

  1. Influence of The administrative planning processes on the Administration of Tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
  2. Assessment of the procedure for The administrative planning processes in tertiary School Education system in Nigeria.
  3. Influence of Administrative planning processes on Teaching and learning outcomes in Selected faculties in University of Ilorin, Nigeria.


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