Evaluation of Air Pollution on Human Health in Industrial Estate
Objectives of the study
The objective of the study includes the following:
- To examine the effects of air pollution to man and his environment
- To identify the various sources of air pollution
- To suggest solutions to air pollution problem in the area of study
- To define the term air pollution
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Our focus in this chapter is to critically examine relevant literature that would assist in explaining the research problem and furthermore recognize the efforts of scholars who had previously contributed immensely to similar research. The chapter intends to deepen the understanding of the study and close the perceived gaps.
Precisely, the chapter will be considered in three sub-headings:
- Conceptual Framework
- Theoretical Framework
There have been different definitions of the concept of „environment‟ proferred by different scholars and organized bodies/agencies. However, from whatever angle one perceives the term; „environment‟, it simply depicts what surrounds us. To Hagget (1975), cited in Anijah – Obi (2001), environment refers to the “sum total of all conditions that surround man at any point in time on the earths surface”. According to Miller (1975), the term „environment‟ could be perceived as “the aggregate of external conditions that influence the life of an individual or population, specifically the life of man and other living organisms on the earth‟s surface”. The Federal Environmental protection Agency (FEPA) Act of 1990, under section 38 also gave a very lucid definition of environment, thus; Environment includes water, air, land and all plants and human beings and/or animals living there in and the interrelationships which exist among these or any of them. From the above definitions, the term „environment‟ comprises land, air, water and all the physical structures surrounding us. In this paper therefore, the concept „environment‟ refers to the „totality of space, time and socio-cultural settings of man and other living organisms therein.
The term pollution is a derivation of the word pollute-which means, to make something dirty or no longer pure, especially by adding harmful or unpleasant substances to it. In another development; the committee on pollution of the United States National Research Council (1965) defined pollution as; an undesirable change in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of our air, land and water that may or will harmfully affect human life or that of other desirable species, our industrial processes, living conditions cultural assets that may or will waste or deteriorate our raw material resources. Pollution according to the above definition is a disorder within an environment and is a byproduct of energy conversion and the use of resources. Ekuri and Eze (1999) accordingly, defined pollution as “a contamination, a defilement, mischief, perturbation and reduction in the value of an object or thing”. Relatedly, Jande (2005:4) describes the term – Pollution‟ to mean “to make something dirty or no longer pure, especially by adding harmful or unpleasant substances to it”. In this paper therefore, the concept, “Pollution‟ is used to refer to a situation where waste-materials and/or harmful substances which can deplete, wear/tear away and affect the entire environment and cause disorderliness to all living organisms. Furthermore, environmentally minded persons are of the opinion that human activities as well as natural disasters on the environment can pollute the environment beyond reasonable doubts. Recorded evidence has also shown that continuous pollution of the environment leads to environmental regression and/or diminution (Anijah Obi, 2001, Gbehe 2004 & Ocheri 2003:175). In this study therefore, environmental pollution is used to mean “an undesirable change in the environment through harmful substances; waste materials and resources, caused by man‟s activity or natural disaster which also results to the degradation of the environment with its attendant consequences on biodiversity.
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e. mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
Population of the Study
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals, as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried out to evaluate of air pollution on human health in industrial estate in Enugu state. Hence, The population of this study is made up of Residence of Industrial area in Enugu North LGA.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of Ninty-five (95) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which 80 were returned. The analysis of this study is based on the number returned.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
This research work has studied the Effect of air pollution on human health among Resident in Enugu North LGA. The research work with chapter one which focused on background to the study, statement of problem, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study and operational definition of terms. Chapter two focused on review of related literature on causes, effects and possible ways of controlling environmental air pollution. Chapter focused on the research methods which discussed research design, method of data collection, data collection instrument and method of data analysis. Chapter four focused on analysis of data collected and its interpretation. Finally, this chapter concludes the work with recommendations that are geared towards providing solution to the issues of air pollution.
Pressures on the environment will continue to increase. Global population increase, rising incomes, and agricultural and industrial expansion will inevitably produce unanticipated and potentially deleterious ecological, economic, and human health consequences. Environmental research has proven its value in helping to respond to and prevent many environmental problems. and it continues to be a wise and necessary investment.
As a key environmental agency, government needs to support and maintain a strong research program. An evolving understanding of the complexity, magnitude, and inter-relatedness of environmental problems leads us to conclude that a new balance of research programs may be helpful. This report describes a framework for conducting research in a way that will help alleviate the problems of the moment while providing a basis for solving tomorrow’s problems.
In the past, pressing environmental issues have been addressed primarily through focused research efforts directed toward solving particular problems. Although this approach to environmental research can he effective, has often been necessary, and will surely continue it also has limitations. In order to address the abundance of established emerging and as-vet-unknown environmental issues.
An expanded understanding of the scientific principles underlying environmental systems is needed. Achieving this understanding will require innovative, interdisciplinary approaches.
The following is hereby recommended
- Government should cooperate closely with agencies, organizations, municipalities, universities, and industries involved in environmental research so as to bring solution to minimize the effect of environmental pollution among residents.
- Environmental Protection Agencies should compile, publish, and disseminate an annual summary of all research being conducted or funded h the agency in order to facilitate both better cooperation with others and better internal planning. The report should he organized into broad strategic categories, with sub-categories describing program areas. Publications and other output should he listed and made available upon request
- Design, implementation, and maintenance of appropriate environmental monitoring programs, with evaluation, analysis, synthesis and dissemination of the data and results to improve understanding of the status of and changes in environmental resources over time and to confirm that environmental policies are having the desired effect.
- Good science is essential for sound environmental decision-making. By implementing the recommendations contained in this report. EPA can increase the effectiveness of its research program and thus continue to play an important role in efforts to protect the environment and human health into the next century.
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