Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Evaluation of Moringa Leaves on the Yield and Quality of Garri

Evaluation of Moringa Leaves on the Yield and Quality of Garri

Evaluation of Moringa Leaves on the Yield and Quality of Garri

Chapter One

Objective of the Study

The objective of this project study is to evaluate moringa leaves on the yield and quality of garri.



 Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a root and tuber crop that has been identified as important food, especially in Africa. In areas where cassava is a main staple, people have developed ways for its processing into storable products such as tapioca, starch, dough and garri. It plays a major role in efforts to alleviate the African food crisis because of its efficient production of food, year round availability and tolerance to extreme stress conditions (Hahn, 2007). Cassava has some inherent characteristics which makes it attractive, especially to the smallholder farmers in Ghana (Bokanga, 1992). Cassava is the third most important food in the tropics, after rice and maize. Its importance derives from the fact that its starchy, tuberous roots are a valuable source of cheap calories, especially in developing countries where calorie deficiency and malnutrition are widespread. Cassava alone provides the major source of dietary calories for about 500 million people, many of them in Africa (Yeoh et al., 1998). Of all the tropical root crops, cassava is the most widely distributed and cultivated root crop in different parts of Africa (Onwueme, 2001).

It is particularly important in those areas where food supply is constantly threatened by environmental constraints such as drought and pest outbreaks, because of its ability to grow under conditions considered as suboptimal for the majority of food crops. It can be harvested any time from 6 to 24 months after planting and can be left in the ground as a food reserve for household food security in times of famine, drought and war. Currently, cassava is the largest source of carbohydrates for human food in the world, and it has a high growth rate under optimal conditions and the tuberous roots as well as the leaves are used as human food, animal feed and industrial products (El-Sharkawy, 2004; Sheffield et al., 2006; Gbadegesin et al., 2008). Cassava roots contain high energy and high levels of some vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber, and contain no trypsin inhibitor, but create a problem due to presence of cyanide which is removed by postharvest treatments and cooking (Prathibha et al., 2011). The edible green leaves of cassava are a good source of protein, vitamins and minerals and are often used to augment the rural diet (Bradbury and Holloway, 1988). Despite its importance, the research to improve cassava has lagged behind than that of other crops such as rice, wheat, maize, and potatoes.

Cassava Production

Area cultivated and yield

The cropping season for cassava is described as flexible, because roots can be harvested between eight months and three years after planting (FAO/WFP, 2010). In 2011 the total cultivated area was estimated as 5 632 781 ha. The greater proportion of this was used by small scale farmers (96.4%). The remainder was cultivated by medium (2.3%) and larger scale (1.3%) farmers (INE, 2011). Approximately 2 425 240 ha (43%) of this total cultivated area was used for cassava production. Similar to other food crops in Mozambique, cassava is grown mainly (99.7%) by subsistence and small scale family farmers. Medium scale farmers use only 0.3% of the available land and large scale farmers only 0.01% (INE, 2011).

According to the Agriculture and Livestock Census 2009 to 2010, cassava is cultivated throughout the country. The three provinces with the highest production are Nampula Province, in the northern region (29.27%); Zambesia Province in the central region (26.76%); and Inhambane Province (8.80%) in the southern region (INE, 2011). The estimated production per region is shown in Figure 1. Cassava production increased between 2002 and 2008, when the average production was estimated as six million tons. It rose further to nine million tons in 2010 (FAOSTAT, 2011b). Overall, between 2005 and 2012, the yield of cassava in hectogram per hectare increased from 43.155 to 131.804 (Factfish, 2014). By 2012, the production of cassava had escalated to 10.05 million tons (Factfish, 2014).

 Cassava Varieties

Varieties (also called cultivars) are classified according to morphological traits as well as taste, cyanide content, average yield, disease performance and pubescence (MIC, 2007; Gbadegesin et al., 2013). More than 5,000 cassava cultivars are recognized globally (Gade, 2003; IFAD/FAO, 2005) and 100 varieties have been documented in Mozambique (INIA/IITA/SARRNET, 2002). Varieties grown in Mozambique are known to vary according to region; the Munhaça variety being most common in the Southern Region; Inciricano and Bedo in the Central Region and Nikwaha, Tomo and Cororo varieties, in the Northern Region (MIC, 2007). Consumer preferences influence the variety consumed and are based on the color of the plant, sharpness of the leaf lobe and the color of the root peel (MIC, 2007; Gbadegesin et al., 2013).

There are two major types of cassava: sweet and bitter (Chiwona-Karltun et al., 2004; Mkumbira et al., 2003; MIC, 2007). The flavor is influenced by the amount of cyanogenic glycoside present (Chiwona-Karltun et al., 2004). In the roots, cyanogenic glycosides range from 10 to 500 mg cyanide equivalent/kg dry matter (Siritunga and Sayre, 2003). Cassava leaves contain between 53 to 1,300 mg cyanide equivalents/kg of dry weight (Siritunga and Sayre, 2003; Wobeto et al., 2007). Bitter varieties contain more than 100 mg/kg fresh weight of hydrogen cyanide (McKey et al., 2010). These bitter varieties comprise more than 90% of production as they have a higher yield, are tolerant to pests and diseases and the potential for storage in the soil is greater than 12 months (MIC/FAO/EC, 2004; Mader, 2005). It is essential to process bitter cassava to remove cyanogenic glycosides before consumption (Zvauya et al., 2002; Cardoso et al., 2005; Bradbury, 2006; Cumbana et al., 2007). Sweet varieties contain less than 100 mg/kg fresh weight of hydrogen cyanide, so are consumed fresh, sometimes even raw (Cardoso et al., 2005; Bradbury 2006; Cumbana et al., 2007; Donovan et al., 2011).




 Collection of Materials

            Cassava roots (Manihot esculenta) was purchased at the main market (Oja Oba) in Owo, M. oleifera leaves were plucked from moringa tree at First Molac close to Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo. The cassava was processed in the Processing Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, the chemicals and wares used in analyzing the yield of M. oleifera Leaves on Garri were gotten from Microbiology and Chemistry Laboratory, while the proximate analysis was carried out in Chemistry Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Methods of Production

Preparation of moringa leaves powder

The Moringa leaves were plucked from its stem and also removed any impurities. This preparation is very important since any impurity in the leaves will eventually reflect on the yield of garri. After the leaves had been cleaned thoroughly; they were dried in an electric oven to reduce the moisture content of the leaves. Then the M. oleifera leaves were then milled into powder using attrition mill. The powder was then sieved through a 0.5 mm sieve to obtain Moringa oleifera leaves powder.




Table 4.1: Proximate composition of Garri fortified with Moringa leaves powder





Moringa leaves is well-known for its medicinal and nutrient value, moringa leaves powder used to fortify garri in order to enhance its nutritive value as well as to increase is sensory attributes. The result shows that the research work is successful to an extent, the protein content of MGA disagree with earlier researches since cassava contain less than 1.50% protein. MGB have the best outcome in terms of protein, moisture and ash content, although the sample is considerably low in fat and fibre. Regarding the sensory attributes of the samples, MGB have the best outcome and is generally accepted due to it’s test, aroma and grainess. In conclusion d fortification of GarrOI with moringa flour should be approved up to 30% for moringa flour and 70% for Garri.


Based on the findings of the research work, it is therefore recommended that the use of moringa up to 30% with Garri produced from cassava should be encouraged in order to enhance the nutrition and qualities of Garri and to help control malnutrition in society at large, since Garri is widely consumed by almost all the people in Nigeria.


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