Biochemistry Project Topics

Evaluation of the Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Sesamum Indicum on Ketoconazole-Induced Testicular Damage in Male Wistar Rat

Evaluation of the Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Sesamum Indicum on Ketoconazole-Induced Testicular Damage in Male Wistar Rat

Evaluation of the Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Sesamum Indicum on Ketoconazole-Induced Testicular Damage in Male Wistar Rat

Chapter One

Objectives of the study

The main objective of the study is to examine the effect of ethanolic extract of sesamum indicum on ketoconazole induced testicular damage in male wistar rat.



Concept of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Pedaliaceae)

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Pedaliaceae) is one of the oldest oil crops and thought to have originated in Africa (Brar and Ahuja, 1979; Ram et al., 1990). It is widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions. Its production is often concentrated in marginal and sub marginal lands (Ashri, 1998). Nigeria ranks among the top six world producers of sesame seed and linseed. The Nigerian government has indicated that the oil seeds such as sesame, niger and safflower seeds as high-priority export crops and ranks the second biggest export earner. Thus, production growth and quality improvement of oilseeds can substantially contribute to the economic development at national, regional and at family level (Wijnands et al., 2009). Sesame is the third most important oil crop in Nigeria and occurs both as cultivated and wild. Sesame in Nigeria shows a high phenotypic diversity for number of days to maturity, plant height, pod shape and size, and for seed size and color (FAO, 1996). Sesame production is increasing in Nigeria especially in southwest and northwestern parts of the country which is driven by high market value and suitability of environmental conditions (Wijnands et al., 2007). However, lack of wider adapting cultivars, shattering of capsules at maturity, non-synchronous maturity, poor stand establishment, lack of fertilizer responses, profuse branching, and low harvest index are the major constraints in sesame production worldwide (Ashri, 1994). Sesame being the most important export oil crop in Nigeria, however, there is no adequate information available in Nigeria. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to review the importance of sesame seed, production trend, challenges, potentials and future opportunities of the crop.

Origin and Distribution of Sesame

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Pedaliaceae) is a broad leafed plant and with mostly indeterminate inflorescence (Tashiro et al., 1991). Though there are dehiscent and non-dehiscent types, but most sesame seed is produced with ent types. When the capsules on dehiscent cultivars mature, they split from top down wards over about two thirds of their length and shed their seeds if not timely harvested causing yield losses. The genus sesamum (2n=26) is a member of pedaliaceae family which contains 16 genera and 60 species which most occur in Africa (Ashri, 2007). Sesame diversity centers have been identified in India,

Importance of Sesame Seeds

Annual plants such as sesame, linseed, soybeans, corn, cottonseed, groundnut, sunflower, safflower and rapeseed are the largest sources of vegetable oils (Frank, 1998; O’Brien, 1998). Sesame is a high value food crop which is an important source of edible oil and is also used as a spice (in bakeries). The seed oil ranges from 50-60% containing high proportion of natural antioxidants such as sesamolin, sesamin and sesamol which gives excellent stability (Brar and Ahuja, 1979; Hatam and Abbasi, 1994; Uzun et al., 2002) and 19-25% protein (Ashakumary et al., 1999). Oil content ranging from about 45 to 53% has also been reported in Nigeria (Zenebe and Hussien, 2009). Genetic and environmental factors influence the oil content and fatty acid compositions of sesame (Carlsson et al., 2008)




Seed procurement and identification

470 g of Sesamum indicum seeds were obtained from Samaru market-Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria and authenticated in the herbarium of the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria and assigned voucher no. 4. The seeds were macerated using 95% ethanol to obtain the extract with a yield weight of 46.42 g in solvent form.

Drugs and reagents

Two hundred (200) mg of ketoconazole tablets and 25 mg of Tablet Provirone (Mesterolone) manufactured by Divine New Favour Pharmaceuticals (Anambra State) and Bayers Pharmaceuticals (United Kingdom) with batch Nos. 82339737 and 400 8500 060056 and NAFDAC Nos. A4-2186 and 04-1300, respectively, were purchased from Micro novo Pharmaceutical Company Plc. Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.


Extraction of sesame seed: Four hundred and seventy (470) g of sesame seed was macerated in a maceration apparatus. The sesame seeds were poured into 2 ml maceration apparatus (Pyrex) and the seeds coats were manually removed. The macerated seeds were later transferred into a three and half (3.5) L beaker containing 95%v/v of ethanol to cause the removal of flavanoids and lignans. It was stirred and left for six hours to allow the extraction of polar substances. The supernatant was sieved off using a metallic sieve and the filtrate was collected into a separate beaker. The filtrate was collected into an evaporating dish with the use of a spatula and placed on a water bath, heated to a temperature of 60°C to completely remove the ethanol. The extract was kept for eighteen hours to allow for evaporation to take place. The yield weight of the extract was 46.42g in solvent form. (Figure 4.1)




Histological Observation (Plate I-VIII)




The ethanolic extract of sesamum indicum seeds has enhanced sperm cell concentration and ameliorated the toxic effect of ketoconazole on the testes by improving the cyto-architecture of the histology of the treatment groups and the ameliorative effect was most prominent on the prophylactic administration of the extract to the experimental animals.


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