Vocational Education Project Topics

Evaluation of Vocational Rehabilitation Services for Persons With Physical Disabilities in Beautiful Gate Handicap People’s Centre Jos.

Evaluation of Vocational Rehabilitation Services for Persons With Physical Disabilities in Beautiful Gate Handicap People's Centre Jos.



Objective of the study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To investigate the kind of vocational rehabilitation services offer to persons with physical disabilities in beautiful gate handicap people centre Jos
  2. To ascertain the impact of vocational rehabilitation services on beautiful gate handicap people centre Jos.




  • introduction

Over the last few decades the share of health and social security in total welfare spending has gradually increased in all industrialized countries. Public expenditure for social security in European Union (EU) countries roughly doubled between 1960 and 1985 and since then has slightly increased until now where it represents about 20% of the gross domestic product. The expenses are generally related to three main kinds of benefit: sickness benefits, invalidity benefits (also called disability benefits), and employment injury benefits (including occupational disease benefits). The benefits for work-related injuries and diseases usually have no particular entitlement conditions (apart from that of being employed), waiting periods or time limits, are more munificent and include additional allowances. There are marked differences among countries in terms of eligibility criteria, specific types of benefit, ease of obtaining the benefits, claims, adjudication and appeal procedures, etc. This is because the organisation of each social security system is affected by economic, socio-cultural and political issues, and is only one element of a broader social framework (including demographic and employment issues, among others). The different mechanisms and control systems are likely to influence the patterns of utilisation of all these benefits (e.g. certifications, benefit claims, benefits received, etc.) and thus in surveying this material it is difficult to draw general conclusions. From 1985 to 1994, both sickness and invalidity benefits rose in most European countries (on average by about 20-30% and 15-20%, respectively). In the last few years a dramatic increase in sick leave has been observed in some countries, for example in Sweden since 1997 In Switzerland (7,500,000 inhabitants) in 2001 the disability compensation insurance, which is responsible for the disability pension payment, paid out 485,000 insurance claims (for physical or psychological disturbances leading to loss of job) for a total of 9.5 billion SFr. The deficit of this insurance was approximately 1 billion SFr for the year 2001: it is explained by an increase of 123% in claims and 165% in total expenditure between 1988 and 2001. Three main diagnostic groups account for the large majority of sickness and invalidity benefits: musculo-skeletal disorders, mental disorders, and cardio-respiratory disorders. Not all reported work injuries and illnesses are disabling, however and the phychiatrist is most likely to be consulted for conditions associated with prolonged work disability. In recent years the prevalence of musculo-skeletal disorders producing long-term sick leave (particularly back pain and cumulative trauma disorders of the upper limb) has increased in many industrialized countries. In the USA they constitute about 40% of all compensation claims, with back pain accounting for more than half of these claims [4]. In the UK, musculo-skeletal disorders represent the largest group (28%) of beneficiaries of incapacity benefit, whereas mental and behavioural disorders (milder conditions, in particular) are the second most common reason for being awarded this benefit (20%). In Sweden, psychiatric and stress-related diseases have risen in recent years and this modification has been explained by changes observed in working life conditions (i.e. organizational changes, rationalizations and a labour market not fitted to fully meet these changes). Similarly, in Switzerland, a 72% increase in invalidity pensions for psychoses and a 239% increase for psychic reactive troubles were observed between 1988 and 2002. Based on the ICF classification estimates by the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) of the number of people in the EU affected by some form of self-reported disability vary substantially between countries and within the same country compared to previous national surveys, and represent on average 14% of the EU working-age population. This percentage concerns all groups of disabled people (with congenital and acquired impairments, with different degrees of disability, with permanent or temporary disabilities).

Vocational rehabilitation

Many definitions have been proposed for “vocational rehabilitation”. In “Vocational Rehabilitation. The Way Forward” vocational rehabilitation is defined as enabling individuals with either temporary or permanent disability to access, return to, or remain in, employment. This definition is similar to that proposed by the International Labour Organisation and based on the objective: “to enable a disabled person to secure and retain suitable employment”. The most complete definition is proposed by Selander : “Medical, psychological, social and occupational activities aiming to reestablish among sick or injured people with previous work history their working capacity and prerequisites for returning to the labour market, i.e. to a job or availability for a job”. This last description comprises all the aspects included in a vocational program directed towards the return to work. Vocational rehabilitation deals largely with vocational assessment, work re-training, education and counselling, work guidance and ergonomic modifications, and psycho-social interventions (including vocational orientation and all other forms of preparation for returning to work). These interventions slightly differ from services to persons with congenital or developmental disabilities who are seeking to enter the labour market for the first time.

While the literature on vocational rehabilitation is extensive, the definitions used in the implementation of these programs are not consistent. Measures of VR efficacy are sometimes defined in terms of economic stability, but more often defined simply by short-term employment outcomes (Department on Disability Services, 2010; Fleming, Fairweather & Leahy, 2013). Vocational rehabilitation provides a range of services and uses several terms (sometimes interchangeably) which may not be familiar to those outside of VR. For this reason, key terms such as supported employment, sheltered workshop, work center, and competitive employment will be defined here. One problem in comparing the findings of existing research on employment outcomes for people with disabilities is the conflated use of terminology and lack of uniform use of terms. Supported employment is an employment accommodation made for individuals with disabilities, often through enclaves (defined as groups of 6 or fewer employees with disabilities in an integrated setting) and/or job coaches. Supported employment was formed with the intention of creating opportunities for people who would otherwise not have been considered employable to find and maintain successful employment (Anthony & Blanch, 1987). The literature is conflicted as to whether supported employment has met those goals. According to the U.S. Department of Labor (2015), the term sheltered workshop is often used interchangeably with work center, and is a segregated environment that employs persons with disabilities. Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) services are based on individual needs and more widely defined as any goods or services an individual might need to find and keep employment, such as assistive technology devices and services (Elliot & Leung, 2004). Vocational Rehabilitation can take place in a variety of settings, ranging from in-house workshops to supported employment in the community. Chan et al., (1997) define vocational rehabilitation as: A dynamic process consisting of a series actions and activities that follow a logical, sequential progression of services related to the total needs of a person with a disability. The process begins with the initial case finding or referral, and ends with the successful placement of the individual in employment. Many activities and developments occur concurrently and in overlapping time frames during this process. These researchers go on to identify key outcomes of Vocational Rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities, namely: increased independence, client-driven choices, and gainful employment (Chan et al., 1997). While VR programs vary slightly in their approaches, these key outcome areas remain consistent across programs. Vocational rehabilitation counselors close VR cases as “successful” (also known as Status 26) when an individual has achieved an employment goal consistent with his or her informed choice and the following conditions outlined by the Department on Disability Services (2010) are met: The individual has achieved the employment outcome described in the Individualized Plan for Employment (IPE). The employment outcome is consistent with the individual’s strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed choice. The employment outcome is in the most integrated setting possible, consistent with the individual’s informed choice. The individual has maintained the employment outcome for a period of at least 90 days (DDS, 2010). An individual’s VR case is closed as successfully rehabilitated with the status code of 26 when the conditions highlighted above are met. However, there is no data collected by VR staff following the 90-day window following a “successful” job placement. Therefore, accurate information on the longevity of employment for adults with disabilities is not available in the data maintained by VR services. Competitive employment is defined as employment in an integrated setting, in which individuals with IDD work alongside workers without disabilities and earn at least minimum wage; this is the goal of many VR interventions (Heyman et al., 2016). Despite this goal, recent statistics show that only 18% of adults with intellectual disabilities are working competitively (Siperstein, Parker & Draschler, 2013). Significant gaps in the literature also exist around the connection between subminimum wages paid to disabled workers and poverty among disabled adults. If one of the stated goals of VR programs is to provide workers with disabilities the opportunity for better economic outcomes, how have the interventions provided by VR achieved these aims? It is that question that forms the basis for this research project.

History of Vocational Rehabilitation

The history of vocational rehabilitation dates back as early as 1917, and its evolution can be seen through legislative and policy changes over the years. Some of the pivotal changes that will be highlighted in this section are the Soldier’s Rehabilitation Act, the 1935 Social Security Act, the 1973 Rehabilitation Act, deinstitutionalization from facilities, the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and the 1999 Supreme Court ruling on Olmstead v. LC. Origins. The earliest roots of vocational rehabilitation (VR) come from the SmithHughes Act of 1917, which provided federal funding for agricultural programs in schools. The Soldier’s Rehabilitation Act of 1918 introduced the concept of providing work supports for wounded and disabled veterans returning from World War I (Kundu & Schiro-Geist, 2007). Veterans were trained in programs that matched their current abilities. For example, a soldier who had lost a leg fighting in France would be retrained as a draftsman when he returned home. This program was widely successful and was held in high public opinion. Because of the popularity of this program, it was expanded in 1920 to include non-veterans. Aid remained limited to those with the specific disabilities outlined in the law. People with epilepsy and developmental disabilities, for example, were not eligible for assistance through VR (Braddock & Parish, 2001). They relied on charity from churches or family, or were put into state-supported institutions. VR funding was increased, and it was made into a permanent program as part of a provision of the 1935 Social Security Act. In Minnesota, the St. Paul Goodwill Industries employed 100 persons, “too handicapped for WPA employment, but who want to keep off the relief rolls” (Goodwill, 1938). During WWII, many jobs were left unfilled by those fighting in the war. The Rehab Act of 1943 allowed individuals with mental illness and “mental retardation” (language used at the time) to obtain VR services to allow them to join the workforce and 1954 amendments expanded funding for these programs (SSA bulletin, 1954). VR was again expanded in 1973 under the Rehabilitation Act, specifically Section 504, which was civil rights legislation designed to protect individuals with disabilities from discrimination. The Rehabilitation Act went beyond providing legal protection, and made specific reference to providing direct services to aid persons with disabilities obtain employment (Rothstein, 2014). Civil rights protections for individuals with disabilities expanded in 1990 with the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. VR in its current form is regulated by both Section 504 and the ADA; both of which assume that people of all ability-levels are employable and provide protections accordingly. While VR has evolved significantly over the years, the model remains inadequate for providing the level of services needed for disabled job-seekers (Certo, Luecking, Murphy, Brown, Courey & Belanger, 2008; MacInnes, Tinson, Gaffney, Horgan & Baumberg, 2014).



5.1 Introduction                  

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain evaluation of vocational rehabilitation services for persons with physical disabilities in beautiful gate handicap people’s centre jos. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of vocational rehabilitation services for persons with physical disabilities in beautiful gate handicap people’s centre jos.

5.2 Summary                            

This study was on evaluation of vocational rehabilitation services for persons with physical disabilities in beautiful gate handicap people’s centre jos. Two objectives were raised which included: To investigate the kind of vocational rehabilitation services offer to persons with physical disabilities in beautiful gate handicap people centre Jos and to ascertain the impact of vocational rehabilitation services on beautiful gate handicap people centre Jos. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of beautiful gate handicap people’s centre jos. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made directors, administrative staffs, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

5.3 Conclusion

 We find that VR services for clients with physical impairments have substantial positive long-run rates of return, with a median rate of return of 174% annually. These estimated rates of return are notably larger than those found for clients with other impairments. For those with cognitive impairments, for example, Dean et al. (2015) and that at least 21% of clients have negative rates of return and the median annual rate of return is 19:7%. Similar results are found for clients with mental illnesses in Dean et al. (2016). These differences in rates of return seem to reject the nature of the limitations. As noted earlier, many persons with physical impairments have relatively strong ties to the labor market prior to being injured; nearly half of the VR clients with physical impairments are employed one year prior to applying for VR services


Government should always include vocational rehabilitation service programme in budget in order to help the disabilities


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