Examine the Influence of Teaching and Learning Material/resources in the Teaching of Accounting in Senior Secondary Schools in Owerri Municipal Imo State
Objective of the Study
The general purpose of the study is to examine the influence of teaching and learning material/resources in the teaching of accounting in senior secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Imo State. Specifically, the study ought to:
- Determine the effect of teaching and learning material/resources on the academic performance of students in accounting.
- Determine if the competence of teachers will affect the selection of teaching and learning material/resources for the teaching and learning material/resources for the teaching and learning of financial accounting.
- Determine if there is a significant relationship between the performance taught with teaching and learning material/resources and those taught without them.
This chapter presents a detailed review of relevant literature on the influence of teaching and learning material/resources in the teaching and learning of accounting in senior secondary schools. Literature shall be reviewed under the following heading: Conceptual framework, theoretical framework, empirical studies and summary of literature review.
Concept of Teaching And Learning Materials/Resources
In an attempt to define the term teaching and learning materials/resources, the two key words teaching and learning will be explained.
What are teaching and teaching materials?
Teaching is the means through which one impact or transfer, not only skills and knowledge, but values, attitudes and emotional reactions as well. Teaching materials “is a generic term used to describe the resources teachers use to deliver instruction. Teaching materials can support student’s learning and increase student success. Ideally, the teaching materials will be tailored to the content in which they are being used, to the students in whose class they are being used, and the teacher. Teaching materials come in many shapes and sizes, but they all have in common the ability to support student learning.
A Chinese saying “a look is worth a thousand words” illustrates the value of a teaching materials. Equally, “what I hear I forget, what I see I remember and I do I understand” underscores the value of teaching material.
Helen, (2009) defined teaching material as “items that by design serve as major tools for assisting in the instruction of a subject, course, or activity.
Examples of teaching materials includes;
- Chalk Audio tape
- Video tape
- v. Bulletin board
- vi. Projector
What are learning and learning materials?
Learning is like time, every one knows what it is until it is time for a definition of leaning is that it is a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge, which results from ones experience of gaining knowledge or skills.
Learning and teaching are interrelated, and many studies have associated teaching with what the teacher does in class to student learning. Effective teaching brings about meaningful leaning. That is why some teachers produce student’s who year after year learn more than other students do.
Learning materials however, as the name implies, are tools that helps the students to learn or acquire knowledge. In other words, learning materials are those tools used by the learner or students to better equip him on the topic being taught.
Examples of learning materials includes;
- Text book
- Magazines and periodicals
- Maps & Atlases
- Educational games
- PDF documents
- Bank statements e.t.c
Types of Teaching And Learning Materials/Resources
Teaching and learning materials/resources according to Mustapha at al (2002) and Azikiwe (2007) are usually classified based on the characteristic they exhibit. There is a wide variety of teaching and learning material/resources which could be profitably and effectively used in the classroom of accounting learning situation. Teaching and learning material/resources can be classified into three group namely audio, visual and audio visual.
Visual aids are resource materials and devices that appeal to the sense of sight, touch and smell. They consist of non-projected aids which include chalkboard and adhesives pictorial aids which include chart and picture mobile three dimensional aids, projected aids which include film strips and slides, slides projector pictures, charts, whitemarker board, posters, books, specimen e.t.c. learning resources that fall under audio-visual aid appeal to the senses of sight, hearing and touch. They include line sound film, sound strip projector, television and video tape recorder. The audio aids teaching and learning material/resource appeals to the sense of hearing and touch too. They include records and record players, tapes and tape recorder, radio and language laboratories.
This chapter was set out to examine the methods and procedures of data collection for the study under considerate and the statistical tools used for analyzing the data collected. This chapter comes with the following subheading such as. Research design, population of the study, sample and sampling technique, Research instrument, validity of instrument, reliability of instrument, procedure for data collection and data analysis.
This study is a descriptive survey that seeks to unveil the influence of teaching and learning material/resources in the influence of teaching and learning of accounting in senior secondary schools.
Population Of The Study
The study comprises all the senior secondary school students offering accounting in the public secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council of Imo State. The total population of the study is comprise of seven hundred and fifteen (715) accounting students.
PRESENTATION OF RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS
This chapter examines methods and procedure of data collection for the study under consideration and the statistical analysis of the data collected.
Discussion Of Findings, Recommendations, Summary And Conclusion
This chapter discussed the findings of the study and examined the implication of the study, limitation of the study, recommendations, suggestion for further research and the summary of the entire work.
Discussion of Findings
The result obtained from chi-square statistical tool shows that there is a significant relationship between teaching and learning material/resource and the academic performance of students in financial accounting. The respondents strongly agree that teaching and learning materials/resource influences the academic performance of students in accounting, this finding is in line with the assertion of onyeozu,2007 that instructional material are resource materials which facilitate teaching and learning. This finding is also consistent with those of Ikerionwu (2002), Adekola (2008) and (Isola, 2010) who concluded that material resources have a significant influence on student’s achievement in each of the subject when conducted a research on the effects of leaching/learning resources on student’s performance in west Africa school certificate examinations [WASCE].
Also, from the finding that there is a significant relationship between teacher’s competence and the selection of teaching and learning material and resources. This is in line with the summation of (Azikiwe, 2007) that resources materials to be used should be carefully selected by the teacher.
It was also observed in hypotheses three that there was significant difference between the academic performance of students taught without teaching and learning materials/resources in accounting. Majority of the respondents strongly agree that students taught with teaching and learning materials/resources perform better in any examination than those taught with the conventional instructional method and that student taught with instructional material will have a better understanding of the principle of Osokoya (2007) who discovered that there was a significant difference between the mean scores of students taught history with video-taped instructional package and those taught with conventional lecture method and that Ikot (2008) whose finding showed that there was significant difference between the performance of student taught with filmstrip and those taught without filmstrip.
Implications of the finding
The finding form the study have revealed that teaching and learning materials/resource in the teaching and learning of accounting influences academic performance positively. Teaching and learning materials/resources height which will give then the boost to face the challenges of the future.
However, many students in accounting still lack awareness on the use teaching materials and resources. Therefore, it is crucial for the teachers in school to encourage and guide the students to use their learning materials appropriately and also motivate the students to have interest in accounting as it will help them in their daily lives.
Before the teachers are able to guide the students, the teachers must at first acquire the necessary skills so he or she will be able to guide the students successfully.
The following recommendations were made based on the finding of the study.
The accounting teachers should endeavor to use and try to improve teaching/learning materials for effective teaching of accounting in the senior secondary schools.
- Government should ensure the adequate employment of dedicated and qualified accounting teachers to teach the subject in all senior secondary schools in the study area and in the state.
- Suitable textbooks on utilization of accounting materials should be made available to all senior secondary schools.
- Government should make available funds and sponsor the teachers attendance at conferences, seminars and workshops on utilization of accounting teaching and learning materials/resources.
- The government through the ministry of education, should make available adequate teaching and learning materials/resources for use by teachers to enhance students academic performance in accounting.
- There is need for a well-equipped library. This will go a long way in ensuring that students are exposed to different types of materials.
- Parents should not be left out in the drive to provide and encourage the effective utilization of accounting materials by their children in senior secondary schools. Once parents and guardians realize the importance of teaching and learning materials/resources in the education of their children and wards, they will hesitate to give moral, material and financial support for the use of accounting teaching and learning materials.
Limitation Of The Study
The completion of this study was made out of difficulties. This topic covers a wide area of interest but the researchers were constrained by a variety of factors. It took the researchers extra time and effort to convince some students to fill the questionnaire. Also some questionnaire were wrongly filled, hence the researchers had to produce more copies to replace those ones that were wasted. More so, The researchers were confronted with financial constraints which prevented them from extending their research to other parts of the State (Imo State).
Suggestions For Further Studies.
The researchers suggest the following areas for further studies.
- A way of ensuring a larger scope for this study could be through the involvement areas of Imo State. Future research work should attempt to use more samples drawn from Imo State.
- Research should also be carried out on teacher’s attitude towards improvisation of teaching resources for effective teaching of accounting.
- This study concentrated on the influence of teaching materials and resources in the teaching and learning of accounting, other subjects such as chemistry, economic, and mathematics should be researched into, for a total upliftment of education in Nigeria.
- An assessment of competence teachers in the accounting contents should be carried out too. This is to assess the personnel handling the teaching of accounting and arrange for their capacity building.
- The researcher also recommends the basic teaching and learning materials/resources for special students (disables).
The study was designed to investigate into the influence of teaching and learning materials/resources in the teaching and learning of accounting in senior secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council of Imo State.
In chapter One the researchers introduced the study with its objectives or purpose and also stated the research questions. In chapter two related relevant literature on the topic were reviewed. Chapter three discussed on the research design and procedure that was used for the study chapter four analyzed the three research questions. While in Chapter five, the findings of the study were discussed with its educational implications, recommendation and some suggestions for further study.
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