Public Health Project Topics

Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Corona Virus Vaccination Among Frontline Workers

Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Corona Virus Vaccination Among Frontline Workers

Factors Influencing the Acceptance of Corona Virus Vaccination Among Frontline Workers

Chapter One

Objective of the study

The main objective of the study is to examine c in Ado odo otta LGA. Specifically, the study aims to

  1. Examine the knowledge and perception of Frontline workers inAdo odo otta LGA about coronavirus vaccine
  2. Evaluate the attitude of Frontline workers inAdo odo otta LGA about coronavirus
  3. Examine the factors influencing the acceptance of Corona virus vaccination among Frontline workers inAdo odo otta LG



Vaccines are a key strategy to stop the escalation of the COVID19 pandemic. As of April 8, 2020, there were more than 100 COVID-19 vaccine candidates being developed (Pogue et al 2020). This vaccine development is proceeding at a fast pace; prior to March 30, 2020, two vaccine candidates had entered Phase 1 clinical trials (Lurie et al 2020) while on April 9, five vaccine candidates in total were in Phase 1 clinical trials (Thanh Le et al 2020). Understanding vaccine acceptance is important, given the large population and because it has relatively high vaccine hesitancy for existing vaccines and relatively low vaccination coverage (van Doremalen et al 2020; Harapan et al 2019). Characterizing how vaccine efficacy could impact acceptance is also important, given that actual or perceived vaccine efficacy could be relatively low.

The high usage of news media is concerning given the potential for alarming, sensationalist portrayals of the pandemic (Klemm et al 2016). In addition, myths, rumors and misinformation can quickly spread online, particularly via social media (Vosoughi et al 2018). Reliance on social media might have contributed to uncertainty around COVID- 19, for example, about whether people have natural immunity and whether specific home remedies (garlic, vitamins, and rinsing noses with saline) help protect against coronavirus. It may also explain some uncertainty around whether the virus was human-made and deliberately released. Uncertainty and rapidly changing information may have contributed to increased worry about the virus (Han et al 2006). These findings speak to the importance of distributing accurate health information about COVID-19 through a variety of sources (news, social media, and government websites) to reach the general population and correct misinformation.

The effect of media exposure may be related to the provision of important health information about the pandemic. Although media exposure early in the outbreak appears to have facilitated health- protective behaviors, media fatigue— where people become desensitized to ongoing messaging—may reduce this effect as the pandemic continues (Collinson et al 2015). Repeated media exposure may also lead to heightened stress and anxiety, which can have longer- term health effects, as well as contributing to excessive or misplaced health- protective behaviors such as presenting for diagnostic testing when actual risk of exposure is low (Garfin et al 2020).

Emerging evidence from groups with widespread testing for the SARS-CoV-2 virus indicates that between 2 and 8 out of every 10 infections may be asymptomatic (Mizumoto et al 2020; Nishiura et al 2020). Despite being asymptomatic, those infected are still able to transmit the virus to others (Bai et al 2020; Zou et al 2020). In addition, people appear to be infectious and asymptomatic during the incubation period (Lauer et al 2020). People commonly rely on symptoms to indicate illness and assume that the absence of symptoms means they are well (Diefenbach & Leventhal 1996). Such assumptions in the COVID-19 pandemic could have serious consequences, in terms of both community transmission and reduced health-protective behaviors. Therefore, public health communication campaigns about COVID-19 need to address these misconceptions.

There is an evident uncertainty clouding the COVID-19 vaccines. Firstly, the new mRNA-based vaccines as a novel technology could be received with some skepticism since no prior experience or successes with such approach have been reported in the past. Also, the speed of vaccine development and registration in less than a year may have mediated a role in lowering the acceptance level. Another global phenomenon that negatively contributed to such a low level is the numerous campaigns launched by anti- vaccinationists fueled by the new technology and short span of vaccine development. Such campaigns on social media with fabricated, false, and sometimes misleading translations feed the conspiracy beliefs of some people. Some factors that are specific to the country and the region could also play a role in this. For example, there is a sector of the public who had their trust shaken in local authorities and/or disapprove the overall handling of the pandemic. Some people expresses their frustration as many decisions could be unwelcomed, disproportional with the pandemic status, not justified or backed with science.





In this chapter, we would describe how the study was carried out.

Research design

Research design is a detailed outline of how an investigation took place. It entails how data is collected, the data collection tools used and the mode of analyzing data collected (Cooper & Schindler (2006). This study used a descriptive research design. Gill and Johnson (2002) state that a descriptive design looks at particular characteristics of a specific population of subjects, at a particular point in time or at different times for comparative purposes. The choice of a survey design for this study was deemed appropriate as Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) attest that it enables the researcher to determine the nature of prevailing conditions without manipulating the subjects.

Further, the survey method was useful in describing the characteristics of a large population and no other method of observation can provide this general capability. On the other hand, since the time duration to complete the research project was limited, the survey method was a cost effective way to gather information from a large group of people within a short time. The survey design made feasible very large samples and thus making the results statistically significant even when analyzing multiple variables. It allowed for many questions to be asked about a given topic giving considerable flexibility to the analysis. Usually, high reliability is easy to obtain by presenting all subjects with a standardized stimulus; observer subjectivity is greatly eliminated. Cooper and Schindler (2006) assert that the results of a survey can be easily generalized to the entire population.

Research settings

This study was carried out among Frontline workers in Ado odo Otta LGA in Ogun state general hospital Ota.

Sources of Data

The data for this study were generated from two main sources; Primary sources and secondary sources. The primary sources include questionnaire, interviews and observation. The secondary sources include journals, bulletins, textbooks and the internet.

Population of the study

A study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitute of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description (Prince Udoyen: 2019). In this study the study population constitute of of all the Frontline workers in Ado odo Otta LGA in Ogun state general hospital Ota.



A total of 465 adult respondents (aged 18 years and above; median age:34.5 years) from the six geopolitical zones of the Country participated in the quick web-based survey. A higher proportion of them were urban dwellers (72.5%), followed by sub-urban dwellers (21.3%) and lastly rural dwellers (6.2%) (Figure 3). Also, a higher proportion of the respondents were within the age range of 18-25 years (63.9%) and were females (61.7%). Three hundred and ninety-three, 393 (84.5%) representing a higher proportion of the respondents were Christians by religion. All the respondents (100%) had a tertiary level of formal education, with 226 (48.6%) and 94 (20.2%) being medical students and medical professionals respectively. Farmers, the clergy and retirees were the least represented (3 [0.6%] each). A high proportion of the respondents (21.0%) had no monthly source of income, though greater cluster earned between #18,000-#50,000 (24.5%) and >#100,000 monthly (21.5%) (Table 1).




Misinformation and disinformation strengthen vaccine skepticism and rejection. This could undermine efforts to end the coronavirus pandemic. The outcome of this study further underscores the need for adequate public health enlightenment on the role of safe and potent vaccine in curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. This will ensure adequate deployment and acceptance of the vaccine when it finally arrives. It would be a tragedy for the deadly virus to continue to escalate due to poor knowledge, negative perception and outright rejection of vaccine by the people. To this end, first, there is need for continuous tracking of false rumours about COVID-19 in hopes of curbing their spread. The social media companies must come up with effective strategies to ‘flatten the curve’ of false information regarding the COVID-19 vaccines. They must be deliberate and continuously step up efforts to flag or remove misinformation and to guide people to reliable sources. Also, they must take responsibilities for the nature and authenticity of information been circulated on their platforms. The sources of false information must be identified and nipped at the bud. Facts must be promoted above false information using appropriate fact-checking and regulatory mechanisms. Efforts to raise the profile of good information, and place a warning label on the bad must be intensified. Credible evidence must be available to counter any fake news that went viral. Second, more engagement and collaborations among research institutions, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies is needed, hence the creation of the “Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Intervention and Vaccine (ACTIV) Program”. The private sector should also be fully supported in their drive towards development and production of COVID-19 vaccine. The World Health Organization and other multilateral

institutions such as the World Bank, World Economic Forum, International Monetary Fund, Global Vaccine Alliance, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation, Wellcome Trust, Bill and Mellinda Gates Foundations, African Vaccine Manufacturing Initiative and other Corporate bodies (Governmental and Non-governmental), too numerous to mention here should remain focused and unrelenting in financing and deploying vaccine for global use. They must ensure fair distribution among all countries when it becomes available. Finally, testing of vaccine safety and efficacy must follow global best practices, devoid of any form of political, religious or racial bias. The pursuit for vaccines to curb the COVID-19 pandemic is on and should not be at the expense of ethical principles such as informed consent and medical privacy. The COVID-19 vaccines must be safe and effective, and once this is proven, a comprehensive immunization campaign would be needed to achieve maximum acceptance by the general public.


Our recommendations are as follow:

  1. Future researchers conducting similar survey should extend the duration of the survey longer than we did to receive more responses (larger sample size) that will give a clearer picture of the knowledge, perception and readiness of Nigerians to accept the COVID-19, with respect to the socio-demographic characteristics. A correlation analysis between various criteria is highly commended.
  2. They should also consider using a non-web-based approach in their survey in order to accommodate participants without access to internet.
  3. Further study should be undertaken to explore the potential relationship between the various socio-demographic characteristics of the study participants and their willingness to participate in the COVID-19 vaccine trial.
  4. Using the polio vaccine as a reference point, the southerners were more receptive to vaccine and vaccination, than the northerners. Therefore, we would recommend that potential vaccine investigators should consider conducting COVID-19 vaccine trial first in the southern parts of the country, before extending it to other parts of the country.
  5. An aggressive campaign at the grass root to debunk the conspiracy theories surrounding COVID-19 is needed to ensure acceptance and deployment of the vaccine when it becomes available.
  6. The Federal Government of Nigeria should be more intentional in committing more resources (funds, manpower etc) to public health awareness programs to enlighten the masses about the benefits of receiving safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines, even before one becomes available.


  • Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering (JHU-CSSE) (2020) Coronavirus: COVID-19 Global Cases by the JHUCSSE as at June 10, 2020.
  • Enitan SS, Ibeh IN, Oluremi AS, Olayanju AO, Itodo GE (2020) The 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak: Current Crises, Controversies and Global Strategies to Prevent a Pandemic. Int J Pathog Res: 1-16.
  • Yao H, Lu X, Chen Q, Xu K, Chen Y, et al. (2020) Patient-derived mutations impact pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.
  • Felter C (2020) What is the world doing to create COVID-19 vaccine? Council on Foreign Relations.
  • Graham BS (2020) Rapid COVID-19 vaccine development. Sci 368: 945-946.
  • Calina D, Docea AO, Petrakis D, Egorov AM, Ishmukhametov AA, et al. (2020) Towards Effective Covid-19 Vaccines: Updates, Perspectives and Challenges (Review). Inter J Mol Med 46: 3-16.
  • Thanh Le T, Andreadakis Z, Kumar A, Román RG, Tollefsen S, et al. (2020) The COVID-19 Vaccine Development Landscape. Nat Rev Drug Discov 19: 305-306.
WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!