Public Health Project Topics

Factors That Leads to Low Utilization of Family Planning Service in Rural Area Among Women of Child Bearing Age

Factors That Leads to Low Utilization of Family Planning Service in Rural Area Among Women of Child Bearing Age

Factors That Leads to Low Utilization of Family Planning Service in Rural Area Among Women of Child Bearing Age


Research Objectives

The main objective of this study is to examine the factors that leads to low utilization of family planning service  in rural area among women of child bearing age a study of Kakwalaka Village, Bendi, in Obanliku, Cross River state, Nigeria, the following specific objectives were formulated;

  1. To determine the level of knowledge of family planning among women of child-bearing age.
  2. To determine the attitudes of rural women of child-bearing age towards family planning.
  3. To determine the level of use of family planning products and services among rural women of child-bearing age.
  4. To determine the factors associated with utilization of family planning services among women of child-bearing age.



Historical perspective of family planning

Family planning refers to the use of modern contraception and other methods of birth control to regulate the number, timing, and spacing of human births. It allows parents, particularly mothers, to plan their lives without being overly subject to sexual and social imperatives. However, family planning is not seen by all as a humane or necessary intervention. It is an arena of contestation within broader social and political conflicts involving religious and cultural injunctions, patriarchal subordination of women, social-class formation, and global political and economic relations.

Attempts to control human reproduction are not entirely a modern phenomenon. Throughout history, human beings have engaged in both pro-and anti-natal practices directed at enhancing social welfare. In many foraging and agricultural societies a variety of methods such as prolonged breast-feeding were used to space births and maintain an equilibrium between resources and population size.

The idea of modern population control is attributed to Thomas Malthus (1766–1834), who in 1798 articulated his doctrine attributing virtually all major social and environmental problems to population expansion associated with the industrial revolution. However, as a clergyman turned economist, Malthus was opposed to artificial methods of fertility control. He advocated abstinence and letting nature take its toll and allowing the poor to die.

In contrast, birth control emerged as a radical social movement led by socialists and feminists in the early twentieth century in the United States. The anarchist Emma Goldman (1869–1940) promoted birth control not only as a woman’s right and worker’s right, but also as a means to sexual freedom outside of conventional marriage. But soon birth control became increasingly medicalized and associated with science and corporate control as well as with the control of reproduction within marriage and conventional family life. As the radicals lost their leadership of the birth control movement to professional experts, mostly male doctors, by the 1920s birth control, which refers to voluntary and individual choice in control of reproduction, became aligned with population control, that is, a political movement by dominant groups to control the reproduction of socially subordinate groups.




Study Design

It is a community based cross-sectional household study that was conducted to investigate use and factors associated with utilization of family planning services in Kakwalaka Village, Cross River State.

Study Population

The study population comprised of all married women of child-bearing age (15-49 years) residing in Kakwalaka Village, Cross River State.

Inclusion Criteria

  1. Married woman at the time of the study.
  2. Woman of child-bearing age (15-49 years).
  3. Woman residing in Kakwalaka Village for at least one year.

Exclusion Criteria

  1. Woman with coexisting premorbid condition such as cancer, HIV etc



Socio-demographic data

In this study, a total of 364 married women of reproductive age group with a response rate of 100 percent were recruited and the findings are presented in the following tables.




This study has established that women of child-bearing age in rural areas of Cross River state have low level of knowledge on family planning and its methods. Attitude towards family planning is poor with cultural and religious misconceptions playing vital roles. Level of use of family planning methods is also low. Established determinants of utilization of family planning services include male non-involvement, family setting, and age.



The following recommendations are hereby made to the

State Government:

  1. Health education of the people in the rural areas should be intensified by the health education unit of the primary health care management board.
  2. Conduct research on causes on husband non –approval or male non-involvement as regards to utilizing FPS.
  3. Intensify advocacy to religious leaders in the community as well as conduct interactive sessions so as to enlighten them on the benefits and urgent need to clarify issues on status of religion regarding family planning to their followers.
  4. Promote community involvement in public health programs.
  5. There should be concerted efforts to the policy makers to intensify awareness on utilization of modern methods of contraception.
  6. The State Ministry of Health in collaboration with the primary health care management board should roll out more programmes such as organizing workshops and seminars to educate married couple on the benefits of family planning practices. This will bridge the gap between awareness and knowledge and practices of family planning.

Family planning service providers:

  1. Community-based family planning clinics need to be expanded and strengthened in the rural areas so as to disseminate information and provide counseling on family planning practices and contraceptive usage. This will help married couple choose appropriate methods so as to reduce the fear of side effects associated with contraceptive usage.
  2. Family planning services should be incorporated in all public hospitals and clinics within the rural areas with the view of increasing access to and supply of contraceptives. This will help reduce if not eliminate the accessibility constraint.
  3. Traditional leaders, opinion leaders, religious leaders and the community as a whole should be made part of the awareness and practice campaign. This will help reduce the negative perceptions society have about people who practice family planning.

Clients (WCBA):

  1. Client orientation and empowerment with regards to family planning.
  2. Clients should be encouraged to be committed users of family planning services.
  3. Clients should be encouraged to give feedback on the service satisfaction.






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