Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Functional and Consumer Acceptability of Ogi Produced From Maize (Zea May) Fortified With Soybean (Glycine Max)

Functional and Consumer Acceptability of Ogi Produced From Maize (Zea May) Fortified With Soybean (Glycine Max)

Functional and Consumer Acceptability of Ogi Produced From Maize (Zea May) Fortified With Soybean (Glycine Max)

Chapter One

Objective of the Study

The objective study is to examine the effects of soybean supplementation on functional and sensory properties of ogi produced from maize (Zea may).




Maize (Zea may L)

Corn, commonly known as maize (Zea mays L.), is annual crop that belongs to the family of grass i.e. Poaceae. Maize is also recognized by different synonyms such as zea, corn, silk corn etc. In Hindi it is called Makka and Barajovar. Maize is mother grain of Americans and is considered as the earliest cultivar of the new world. It is most widely distributed world’s plant. Multitudes of maize subspecies are identified and classified depending upon the extent of starch each have (Kumar and Jhariya, 2013). Maize is a crop having short life cycle and requires warm weather, appropriate apprehension and management. It is valuable livestock feed, as human food and raw material for several industries.


Maize is native of South America but extensively cultivated in various other countries as well like India, Thailand, Pakistan and China, and in several parts of Philippines. It is considered as staple article of food in some islands and provinces. It is widely grown in temperate and tropic regions with well drained and fertile soil (Kumar and Jhariya, 2013).

Taxonomy of Maize

Kingdom: Plantae

Subkingdom: Tracheobionta

Super division: Spermatophyta

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Liliopsida

Subclass: Commelinidae

Order: Cyperales

Family: Poaceae

Subfamily: Panicoideae

Tribe: Andropogoneae

Genus: Zea

Species: Zea mays

            The genus Zea consists of four species of which Zea mays L. is economically important. The other Zea species, referred to as teosintes, are largely wild grasses native to Mexico and Central America. The number of chromosomes in Zea mays is 2n = 20. The tribe Andropogoneae comprises seven genera, namely old and new world groups. Old world comprises Coix (2n = 10/20), Chionachne (2n = 20), Sclerachne (2n = 20), Trilobachne (2n = 20), and Polytoca (2n = 20), and new world group has Zea and Tripsacum (Biology of maize, 2011).

Nutrition Value of Maize

Maize kernel is an edible and nutritive part of the plant. It also contains vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (niacin), vitamin B3 (riboflavin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), folic acid, selenium, N-p-coumaryltryptamine, and N-ferrulyltryptamine. Potassium is a major nutrient present which has a good significance because an average human diet is deficient in it (Kumar and Jhariya, 2013). Roasted maize kernels are also used as coffee substitute (Breadley, 1992).

Maize germ contains about 45–50% of oil that is used in cooking, salads and is obtained from wet milling process (Orthoefer et al., 2003). The oil contains 14% saturated fatty acids, 30%monounsaturated fatty acids, and 56% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The refined maize oil contains linoleic acid 54–60%, oleic acid 25–31%, palmitic acid 11–13%, stearic acid 2–3% and linolenic acid 1% (CRA, 2006). The two main forms of vitamin E present in our diet are alpha (α) and gamma (γ) tocopherols. Maize oil is amongst the rich sources of these tocopherols, especially γ-tocopherol and their reported concentration was 21.3 and 94.1 mg/100 g, respectively (Sen et al., 2006). Maize silk contains various constituents essential for our diet such as maizenic acid, fixed oils, resin, sugar, mucilage, salt, and fibers (Kumar and Jhariya, 2013).

Utilization of Maize

There are varieties of products that can be derived after application of food processing methods like dry milling, wet milling and alkali processing to make it consumable for human beings as discussed above. Commonly, maize is used to make flour, oil, starch, grits, flakes, popcorn, etc. (Ricciarelli et al., 2001). Few very popular products derived from maize are discussed below.





The Maize (Zea may L) and soybean (Gycine max) used are purchased from a local market (Oja Ikoko) in Owo, Ondo state, Nigeria. The maize and soybean was processed in Food processing Laboratory of Food Science and Technology and was subjected to mineral composition the Chemistry Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo.




Table 4.1: Functional properties of maize flour fortified with soybean flour




Inclusion of soyabean flour to maize in constitution production level up to 20% results in notable increased bulk density and overall acceptability of the products. Therefore soybean flour can be successfully utilize in the production of acceptable blends, thus increase the local production and utilization of soybean flour.


Further investigation should be carried out to determine the utilization of soybeans as food enrichment source. Soyabean should be promoted because of its positive health effects for young and adults in the country


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