Functional and Sensory Attributes of Biscuits Produced From the Blend of Maize Wheat Flour
The Objective of the Study
Therefore, this study aims to determine the functional and sensory attributes of biscuits produced from the blends of wheat and maize flour.
Cereals and Legumes
Cereal grains and legumes have been the most friendly food resources for man from antiquity. This is because of their liberal agronomic and conservation requirements coupled with their nutritional value as major sources of calorie, protein, minerals, vitamins and roughages (Okaka, 1997). Cereal grains remain the most important source of calories, for most of the world‟s population. Legumes, in many developing countries, supply most of the plant proteins which are not only main, but also relatively the cheapest source of dietary proteins in areas where animal protein is scarce and too expensive (Adewale, 2010). The quantities of cereal grains and legumes produced and consumed vary considerably within the tropical world. However, as a result of their ability to mature rapidly, and their nitrogen fixing ability, grain legumes feature both in the intensive multi- cropping systems, and in crop rotation patterned on the modern cropping systems typical of temperate agriculture (Adewale, 2010) which increase their gross availability for consumption.
Legumes play a very important role in the local diets and weaning foods. Some legumes are over-utilised while some are under-utilised in our diets due to negligence and ignorance (Aletor and Aladetimi, 2009). African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa, Hochst ex A. Rich, (family Leguminosae, sub-family Papilionaceae) is one of the under-utilised legumes in Nigeria (Klu et al., 2001). It is one of the neglected pulses of tropical origin that has attracted research interest in recent times due to its nutrient content (Eneche, 2005).
Maize: Production and Classification
Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important cereal in the world after rice and wheat and ranks fourth after millet, sorghum and rice in Nigeria (FAO, 2009). Maize or corn is the most important cereal crop in sub Saharan Africa (Akingbala et al., 2007). It is mostly used and traded as a leading feed crop but is also an important food staple. In addition to food and feed, maize has a wide range of industrial applications ranging from food processing to manufacturing of ethanol (FAO, 2006).
Global statistics for cereal consumption indicate that the average total consumption in the African diet is 291.7g/person/day, including an average maize consumption of 106.2g/person/day (FAO, 2009). Maize is known and called by different vernacular names in Nigeria depending on locality like agbado, igbado or yangan (Yoruba); masara or dawar masara (Hausa); ogbado or oka (Ibo); apaapa (Ibira); oka (Bini and Isha); ibokpot or ibokpot union (Efik) and igumapa (Yala) (FAO,2002).
Origin of Maize
Maize is one of the oldest human-domesticated plants. Its origin is believed to date back to at least 7000 years ago when it was grown in the form of a wild grass called teosinte in Central Mexico. Recognizing its early potential as a major food crop, over time the Mesoamerican natives managed to improve the crop, by systematically selecting certain varieties for their desired traits. This process led to the gradual transformation of teosinte to its present day form known as maize, a name which is a likely derivative of “mahis”, meaning “source of life” for Tanio people, the natives known to have mastered its cultivation. Maize is also known as corn, which is the name that has come into common usage primarily because it is used in the United States, the world‟s largest producer, consumer and exporter of maize.
Maize is an annual plant with high productivity which also enjoys exceptional geographic adaptability, an important property which has helped its cultivation to spread throughout the world. Its gradual expansion in the Americas by the Natives was rapidly propagated in the 16th century following the return of Columbus to Europe. Colonial conquests and trade played a central role in the spread of maize cultivation well beyond the European continent, to Africa and Far East Asia (FAO, 2006). There exist several hybrids of maize, each with their own specific properties and kernel characteristics; the most common ones include: dent (or field maize, used for livestock feeding and can be yellow or white), flint (or Indian maize, grown in Central and South America), and sweet (or green maize).
Depending on their colour and taste, maize grown around the world is generally categorized into two broad groups: yellow and white. Yellow maize constitutes the bulk of total world maize production and international trade (FAO, 2006). It is grown in most northern hemisphere countries where it is traditionally used for animal feed. White maize, which requires more favourable climatic conditions for growing, is produced in only a handful of countries, the United States, Mexico and in southern Africa. White maize is generally considered a food crop. Market prices are usually higher for white maize compared to the yellow type but the premium can vary depending on local supply and demand conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
The materials needed for snack production using maize-wheat flour blend are:
- Wheat flour
- Maize flour
- Skim powder milk
- Sugar, salt and baking powder
- Food grade flavor and
These materials were procured from the local market in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Wheat flour processing
Wheat flour was produced as described by Adegunwa et al., (2015) (fig 1). The Wheat grains were dried sorted and cleaned to remove stones, dirt, and infested grains. The cleaned Wheat was dried and then milled using a laboratory hammer mill and allowed to pass through a 250-micrometer mesh.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 4.1: Results on the Functional Properties of Maize and Wheat Flours Blends
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The present study has revealed that consumption of the wheat-maize based snack (biscuits) may improve nutrition in terms of the essential amino acid intakes in such a way that it may eventually contribute to the reduction of PEM, although an increase in the level of substitution of the maize flour with the wheat flour resulted in a reduction of the acceptance level in all the sensory attributes considered. Biscuits with a higher nutritional content can be made with composite blends of maize flour and wheat flour.
The comparative nutritional and sensorial credibility justify the need for further investigation into the use of various agricultural materials in the production of snacks that will promote both the nutritional and health needs of man. Attention should be paid towards attaining the fiber levels for digestion and health benefits without compromising the quality characteristics of products.
- Abdulrahaman, A. A. and Kolawole, O. M. (2006): Traditional preparations and uses of maize in Nigeria. Ethno botanical Leaflets 10: 219-227.
- Adegoke, G. O. and Adebayo, C. O. (2004): Production, nutritional profiles and storability of „aadun‟ and „kokoro‟, two corn products. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 45, 139-144.
- Adewale D. (2010). African yam bean: a food security crop? IITA research guide, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria
- Afoakwa, E. O. (1996): Storage characteristics and quality evaluation of cowpea- fortified traditional foods. B.Sc. dissertation. Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra, Ghana.
- Afoakwa, E.O., Sefa-Dedeh, S. and Cornelius, B. (2002). Optimization of the Nutritional Quality characteristics of cowpea-fortified Nixtamalized maize using computergenerated Response surface model. S. Afr. J. Clin. Nutr. 34(15): 145-155.
- Ahmad S, and Ahmed M. (2014). A Review on Biscuit, A Largest Consumed Processed Product in India, Its Fortification and Nutritional Improvement, International Journal of Science Inventions Today. 3(2):169-186, Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- Akingbala J.O., Onochie E.V., Adeyemi I.A. and Oguntimehin G.B. (2007). Steeping of whole and dry milled maize kernels in ogi preparation. J. Food Proc. Preserv. 11:111.