Guidance and Counselling: a Tool for Quality Enhancement in Secondary Schools
Purpose of the Study
The purposes of the study are:
- To examine the the extent of awareness of guidance and counseling services by students.
- To investigate the availability of necessary facilities and resources that aid in the provision of guidance and counseling services to the students.
- To examine the guidance and counselling services carried out in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area.
- To find out the factors hindering effective guidance and counselling service, in Enugu North Local Government Area.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this chapter, previous works are thoroughly reviewed under the following headings:
- Historical review of the development of guidance and counselling services
- Component of effective guidance and counselling
- Perceived benefits of school guidance and counselling services, role of the school guidance and counsellor, factor affecting the effectiveness of school guidance and counselling services and biographical variables and school guidance and counselling services.
Historical Review of the Development of School Guidance and Counselling Services
Guidance and counselling in school was introduced for different reasons in different countries. Schmidt (1997) stated that school guidance and counselling services began in America in the early 1900s to assist students with their educational development and career aspiration. He further stated that the negative effect of industrial growth and corresponding neglect of human conditions necessitated the introduction of school guidance and counselling services in the USA. Schmidt (1993) stated that an increasing population of students entering schools necessitated the introduction of school guidance and counselling services, after the 1900s, the world wars were the next major events that had an impact on the development of school guidance and counselling services. It arose as a response to social crises brought about by the wars. Student needed counselling services to overcome the traumatic war experiences they had under gone together with their families, relatives and friends.
In Britain, school guidance and counselling was introduced in reaction to the changes in societies in family life and in school which created conditions where greater attention to individual needs was necessary (Taylor 1971). He further stated that social pressure from urbanization, decline in family tradition and the industrial revolution led to the introduction of school guidance and counselling services development. In urbanization and the industrial revolution created turbulence among students who were studying under higher anxiety levels as competition levels had becomes stiffer. They had pressures to choose careers. Owing to these factors, vocational counselling came in handy to keep them in their vocational plans.
In Hong Kong, the school guidance counselling services were introduced in 1950s because of the “increased variation in children’s background, increase developmental, personal and social problems, and lack of motivation toward schools, disruptive behaviors in classrooms and the rise in juvenile delinquency. Brennan, (2004). The school guidance and counselling were introduced to help students overcome the above problems and this led to better school adjustment and improved academic achievement.
In Israel. School guidance and counselling was introduced in 1960 Kungman and Ajzen (1985). It was introduced to cater for students’ career needs and learning disabilities.
In South Africa, school guidance and counselling was introduced to the white and colored South African schools in 1960. Euvrand (1992). Manson (1985) argued that guidance and counselling was introduced in black South Africa schools in 1981 as a social control measure aimed at nurturing a spirit of submission among black learners. It was also seen as an instrument for government imposition of religious, cultural and vocational ideologies and value systems.
Guidance and Counselling Services in Nigeria.
School guidance and counselling in Nigeria commenced in 1958. That year the Calotte Sisters of St Theresa’s College, Ibadan recognized the need to give adequate careers or vocational guidance to their final year students Dr. C I Bercpiki was the first vocation guidance officer appointed by the Federal Ministry of Education Lagos, in 1961. Currently the unit is well manned by trained professional counsellors. In 1967, Mr. Rees, an American, introduced guidance and counselling in secondary schools successfully at comprehensive high school, Aiyetoro, Ogun state and formed the CASSON i.e (Counselling Association of Nigeria). The Federal Government has inserted the need for guidance and counselling in our schools in its National Policy on Education (1981) this has helped to make all the state government to establish guidance and counselling units in their Ministries of Education.
Suffice to say that, although the guidance and counselling is a relatively new comer to Nigeria education scene, it is gradually making its impact. It is still evolving.
This chapter discusses the design of study, the sample and sampling technique, instrument for data collection, validity of the instrument, method of data collection and method of data analysis.
The research design that was used in this study was description survey design. The design involves the study of a group of people which is true representation of the entire population under study. Data were collected and analyzed based on the study. The tool for design is questionnaire.
Area of the Study
The area of the study was Enugu North Local Government Area.
Population of the Study
The population of the study consists of the one hundred (90) student and forty five (45) teachers of all the 9 Secondary Schools in Enugu North Local Government Area. PPSMB, (2014).
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYASIS
This chapter focuses on the presentation and analysis of data collected. The data were presented in a tabular form and analysis was made through a simple mean for both students and teacher respectively.
DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
Discussion of Results
Research Question 1
Do secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area have adequate and qualified school guidance counsellors?
The results of the data analysis in tables 1 and 2 showed that both the students and the teachers disagreed that there were adequate and qualified guidance counsellors in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area.
Research Question 2
Are there adequate guidance and counselling facilities in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area?
This research question was treated in tables 3 and 4.The resulted data analyses and grand means for both the students and teachers indicated that there were no adequate guidance and counselling facilities despite the fact that guidance and counselling was duly included in the school daily routine timetable in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area.
Research Question 3
What are the guidance and counselling services provided by secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area?
From tables 5 and 6, the respondents disagreed that all the important services were adequately provided in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area.
Research Question 4
What are the obstacles to effective guidance and counselling services in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area?
From tables 7 and 8 it could be seen that the respondent agree that there were many obstacles obstructing the effective implementation of guidance and counselling service in Secondary Schools in Enugu North Local Government.
The Implication of the findings is that there is significant deficiency in the implementation of guidance Counselling services in Secondary Schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State compared to what it should be. This affects students in deciding areas they will fit in, in order to maximize their potentials.
The reason for carrying out this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of guidance and counselling service offered in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area. In the first chapter, the researcher looked at the nature or the background of the study, statement of the problems and purpose of the study. The significance of the study, the scope and its research question were discussed also.
In the second chapter, the idea and views of other people’s work were reviewed. The third chapter which was titled research methodology highlighted on research design, area of the study and population for the study. Sample and sampling techniques, reliability, validity of Instrument, method of data collection and data analyses were discussed as well. The fourth chapter talked about the presentation of data analysis and result, while chapter five emphasized the discussion of the finding, summary conclusion and recommendation.
The following conclusions are made based on the findings from the data analyses.
- There are inadequate number of qualified guidance counsellors hinders effective guidance and counselling services in the study area.
- Guidance and counselling facilities are inadequate in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area.
- The guidance and counselling services offered in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area are not adequate.
- The guidance councilors in the schools are not encouraged by the government, teachers and parents.
The researcher makes the following recommendation:
There is need to strengthen the school guidance counselling services policy. The implementation of the policy deserves wider consultation, involving all the stakeholders such as- schools, counsellors, teachers, parents, students and the community at large.
According to the studies, students’ involvement in school guidance counselling services is limited. It is recommended that orientation programmes be organized more frequently for both students and teachers.
In addition to taking part in the planning need assessment and evaluation of school guidance and counselling services, parents should contribute to the procurement of resources in the school so as to improve the effectiveness of the provision of guidance counselling services.
Limitation of the Study:
This research had several limitations:
The study was primarily limited by its small sample size. A larger sample size with more diversity would have benefited the results. Therefore to generalize the results for larger area the research should have involved more participants at different levels.
The literature seems not to have established proper causal relationship using the instrument of questionnaire. A greater deal of information would have been obtained with participant observation method. The researcher was constrained by both time and finance.
However, much effort has been put into it to make the best within the limit of available time and funds.
Suggestions for Further Studies
The researcher has the following suggestions for further research:
- Similar study should be carried out in other Local Government Areas in Enugu State and in all the states of the federation.
- Study should be carried out on the Relevance of the Counsellors’ Educational Qualification to guidance and counselling profession using participant observation method. In doing this, the theoretical issue with respect to causal factors should be properly investigated.
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