Hazards and Prospects of Journalism in Nigeria
Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the hazards and prospects of journalism Nigeria. Specific objectives include;
- To examine the media hazards of journalism profession.
- To ascertain if journalists encounter hazards in news gathering and reporting.
- To find out the media hazards facing journalists in Nigeria.
- To determine if hazards have effects on the performance of journalists.
- To examine the prospects of journalism practice in Nigeria.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Our focus in this chapter is to critically examine relevant literature that would assist in explaining the research problem and furthermore recognize the efforts of scholars who had previously contributed immensely to similar research. The chapter intends to deepen the understanding of the study and close the perceived gaps.
Precisely, the chapter will be considered in three sub-headings:
- Conceptual Framework
- Theoretical Framework
- Empirical framework
Journalism and Journalist
Ewuola (2002), defines “journalism as day – to – day operation of gathering and transmitting news, the above definition shows that, journalism is primarily concerned with giving out of information to an audience on a regular basis. Prof. Akinfeleye (1990), stated that, it is interesting to note as Africans continues to grow economically, politically and socially etc. the need for well trained journalists had become a top priority. Therefore, the tendency towards a very low and sometime negative attitude towards journalism and journalist in African has diminished particular in such countries as Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and many others. To this extent journalist in most black Africa countries particularly Nigeria are now looked at this as a bunch of trained intellectual whose roles as communications, interprets, purveyors of goods and news indispensable in a rapidly growing economy such as that of Nigeria. The above statement made us to know more about journalism and mostly journalist in some developed countries, in Africa and most especially, a country like Nigeria. Ewuola (2002); stated that, a career opportunity for journalists does not only base on one field, he explained further by saying not only journalist but any person wishes to enter the journalist trade in Nigeria should have an idea of the opportunities and prospects available in Nigeria. Although people without journalism background such as English graduates and others could still be found in many Nigerian media houses.
Journalism: A Craft or a Profession
According to American press Institute, journalism is the product of gathering, assessing, creating, and presenting news and information. News is the major element of journalism. The purpose of journalism practice / profession is to keep the public informed about what takes place around the world. Journalists have the responsibility to report news about what is going on in politics, sports, entertainment industry and education to the public. While the term craft is define as an activity that involves making something in a skillful way by using your hands. Journalism as a craft would focus only on the writing aspect because craft is a skillful way of doing something with your hands. Craft can also be seen as an art. In other words, journalism cannot be classified as a craft because it is broader in a way that it is not only about writing articles. There are several categories to be considered when looking at the journalism‟ these are the research aspect, the writing skills, interviews skills, editing skills and the ability to identify newsworthy information and distribute it according to the media standards.
According to the oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary The term profession is described as a type of job that requires special training or skill, especially one that needs a high level of education.
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitute of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried out on hazards and prospects of journalism in Nigeria, using Media Monitoring Services Nigeria Ltd Ajao-Estate, Lagos State, as a case study. Journalist of Media Monitoring Services Nigeria Ltd form the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of thirty-six (36) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only thirty (30) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 30 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
In this study, our focus was on hazards and prospects of journalism in Nigeria using media monitoring services Nigeria Ltd, Lagos State, as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting the media hazards of journalism profession, ascertain if journalists encounter hazards in news gathering and reporting, find out the media hazards facing journalists in Nigeria, determine if hazards have effects on the performance of journalists and examine the prospects of journalism practice in Nigeria. A total of 30 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from journalist in media monitoring services Nigeria Ltd.
Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:
- Journalism profession have many media hazard.
- Journalists in Nigeria encounter hazards in news gathering and reporting.
- The media hazards facing journalists in Nigeria are political and economic pressure, intimidation, censorship and job insecurity and attacks on the protection of journalists’ sources.
- Media hazards have effects on the performance of journalists in Nigeria.
- There are prospects of journalism practice in Nigeria.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- Media organizations should intensify their effort by providing necessary protecting materials for journalists in times of election.
- Government and Non- governmental organizations should collaborate to protect the journalists in times of election.
- Public enlightenment programmes and campaign against violence on journalists during election should be circulated.
- Journalists should be transparent enough on their findings and reporting in order to be credible before the general public.
- Ethics of journalism should be uphold by all media houses, this include private and government media houses.
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- Akinfeleye, R. (1990). Media in Nigeria dialectic issues in Nigerian journalism. Nelson Publisher Limited: Lagos.
- Andrew, A, (2016). The Battle for Professionalism in Journalism in Nigeria amidst Unethical Practices. www.omicsonline.org Retrieved on 27th January, 2019.
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- Constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria, (1999) as amendments in January 2011.
- Day, L.A, (2006). Ethics in Media Communications: Cases and Controversies. Boston: Wadsworth.
- Ewuola, P. O. (2002). Understanding news writing and reporting. Clarity Tonia Enterprises: