Computer Science Education Project Topics

ICT Reception Among Lecturers in Computation of Student Examination Results at the University of Abuja

ICT Reception Among Lecturers in Computation of Student Examination Results at the University of Abuja

ICT Reception Among Lecturers in Computation of Student Examination Results at the University of Abuja

Chapter One

Objective of the study

The main objective this study is to examine the ICT reception Among lecturers in computation of student’s examination result in university of Abuja. Specifically, the objective of this study are:

  1. To evaluate the problems hindering lecturers from using ICT in computation of student’s examination result
  2. To examine the challenges associated with the use of ICT by lecturers in computation of student’s examination result.
  3. To determine the use of ICT among lecturers enhance the quality of computation of student’s examination result.



Reviewing the existing literature around the topic of research interest is vitally important because it helps in understanding not only the body of knowledge that relates to the research topic but also in developing an argument about the relevance of the research (Bryman 2012). Literature review also serves as a roadmap that aids the reader in understanding where the researcher is headed in his/her argument (ibid).

In the same vein, this chapter will systematically review the related literature to guide the reader in understanding what has already been done by other researchers in as far as the use of ICT in instruction is concerned; what concepts and theories are relevant in this area of research amongst other things. The reason for doing so is the fact that knowledge is cumulative in nature. More often than not, scholars build up on already existing body of knowledge by refining it, adding to it or in some instances, refuting it. The latter could be as a result of differences in ideological stances held by different scholars or simply because of a preference to a certain school of thought as opposed to others. The discussion helps in making inroads into the rationale of using ICT in instruction in addition to providing a theoretical background for analysis of the data in order to make a meaningful conclusion.

 The Rationale of Using ICTs in Instruction

It would be much ado about nothing to invest heavily in ICTs before critically analyzing the relative advantage the latter have over other traditional ways of knowledge creation, management and dissemination. This section will try to explore what motivates HEIs to integrate ICTs in performing their core activities then analyze the advantages of using the same.

First, the drastic change in the students’ demography has occasioned mounting pressure for HEIs to utilize ICT in instruction. This change has been brought about by the aftermath of massification1 of higher education which has opened educational opportunities to all and sundry in hitherto elite systems that have, for many years, had restrictive entry requirements for prospective students (Scott 1998). This means that besides the traditional on-campus full-time students, there has been an exponential increase in the number of the full-time\ part-time students where many people take part-time jobs and at the same time attend university. Additionally the quest for lifelong learning where adults either voluntarily or by compulsion take up supplementary courses in order to remain relevant in the ever-changing and competitive job market has led to many adults taking up part-time courses alongside their full-time employment. Some opt for sabbatical leaves to pursue the same (European Commission 2001).

Secondly, marketization of higher education has resulted in a burgeoning for -profit higher education private providers who offer a myriad of certificates, diplomas and degree courses (Altbach 2007). Many of these educational programs that are offered in these institutions are delivered through ICTs in the so-called distance learning modules (ibid). In the recent past, higher education has also witnessed the emergence of virtual university education providers who primarily use ICT modes for delivering their course content to overcome geographic and time barriers or financial constrains in the case of free online courses. A case in point is the African Virtual University which uses an online platform called The AVU virtual classroom that allows qualified students to access course material through “MyAVU Virtual Classroom”.

Third, the external pressure from other stakeholders notably the government, for institutions to provide “value for money” provides ground for universities to re- think how best they can conduct their core activities in a more efficient way. This is often done by setting parameters of performance that address issues of equity and access to educational opportunities, and commitment to lifelong learning (Adam

A term coined to denote the shift from elite higher education that was characterized by restrictive entry requirements to one that allowed all qualified students to participate (Trow 1970) 2003). This is in tandem with resource dependency theory which posits that an institution which relies on another institution to get crucial resources that are the nerve-center of its operation has to, inevitably, adhere to the demands of the institution it depends on in order to ensure a steady flow of these much needed resources without which operation would be difficult or even ground to a halt (Gornitzka 1999). In retrospect, pressure from the government for the university to pay attention to lifelong learning and ICT use leaves no option for the latter but to integrate ICT in its operation.




Research Design

A descriptive survey design was used for the study. A validated questionnaire was used to examine the lecturers and students challenges preventing them from using ICT in the computation of student’s examination result.

 Population/sample of the study

A total of 150 questionnaire copies were administered and a total of 133 were returned were collected. Out these 133, only 120 were filled completely made up of thirty (30) Lecturers and seventy (70) students in university of Abuja stratified randomly were selected to respond to the questionnaire and therefore, constituted the population of the study.


Data collection through a questionnaire survey was chosen because it allows a larger sample, as well as a wider geographical distribution of the sample, and the collection of a large amount of data in a relatively short time. The respondents contacted were the ones familiar with the use of ICT since most of them used the Internet for the purposes of gathering information, sending email and working on social networking.

The questionnaire consisted of three main parts. Part one contains ten items that deal with the problems hindering lecturers from using ICT in computation of student’s examination result.



The data obtained were collated; frequency, percentage and the mean were calculated and the results and findings are presented in tables in table 1. In Figure 1, results are categorized according to the problems, challenges and enhancers of ICT in the location considered.

Table 1: Frequency and Mean Rating on the use of ICT in University Education in Nigeria




The integration of information and communications technology in computation of student’s examination result is considered as a medium in which a variety of approaches and pedagogical philosophies may be implemented. However, ICT as a teaching aid is more complicated in that it demands more specific skills from the Lecturers. Moreover, Lecturers are faced with some challenges and barriers that prevent them to employ ICT in computation of student’s examination result or develop supporting materials through ICT. This study concluded that university Lecturers are familiar -with ICT and ICT usage; however, this does not necessarily mean that they integrate ICT into the curriculum. In addition, insufficient technical supports at schools and little access to Internet and ICT prevent Lecturers to use ICT in the computation of student’s examination result. Shortage of time and time needed to learn using ICT were reported as two other key barriers for Lecturers to integrate ICT into the curriculum.

In order to integrate ICT into die curriculum, on the one hand, teacher training institutions should provide appropriate and sufficient support for the Lecturers. On the other hand, Lecturers should be aware of what is happening in the classroom and what changes are occurring. Therefore, possible effective uses ICT can be applied in teaching and learning, which will eventually lead to the improvement of educational programs,

Findings revealed that the gap is high and the solutions proffered include funding, provision of facilities and technical expertise, among others

Development of new broadband communication services and convergence of telecommunication with computers have created numerous possibilities to use a variety of new technology tools for teaching and learning system. The integration of computers and communications offers unprecedented opportunities to the education systems with its capacity to integrate, enhance and interact with each other over a wide geographic distance in a meaningful way to achieve the learning objectives. The growth of these communication and computer systems, their ease of use, the power and diversity of information transfer allow Lecturers and students to have access to a world beyond the classroom. It has the potential to transform the nature and process of the learning environment and envision a new learning culture. Interactivity, flexibility and convenience have become the order of the day in the ICT supported environment. ICT opens up opportunities for learning because it enables learners to access, extend, transform and share ideas and information in multi-modal communication styles and format. It helps the learner to share learning resources and spaces, promote learner centered and collaborative learning principles and enhance critical thinking, creative thinking and problem solving skills.

ICT can play a significant role in equalizing opportunities for marginalized groups and communities. But the paradox is that for those groups that are unable to cross the technology divide, ICT is yet another means to further marginalize them. Education has a major role to play in resolving this problem. Thus, unless ICT becomes part of both the delivery and content of education, the disadvantage will deepen and development will suffer.

But the failure to use ICT is itself a result of the digital and knowledge divides that exist, and their causes are deeply embedded in the complex historical and socio-cultural context of the country.

Internet traffic is increasing as more people become Internet users and existing users send greater amounts of data. If the volume of traffic increases faster than the capacity of the network increases, congestion will occur, similar to the congestion that occurs when too many cars attempt to use a highway. To avoid congestion, researchers have developed technologies, such as Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM), that transfer more bits per second across an optical fiber. The speed of routers and other packet-handling equipment must also increase to accommodate growth. In the short term, researchers are developing faster electronic processors; in the long term, new technologies will be required.


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