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Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Academic Performance of Students in Afe Babalola University

Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Academic Performance of Students in Afe Babalola University

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Academic Performance of Students in Afe Babalola University

Chapter One

Objectives of the study

The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the academic performance of students at Afe Babalola University.

Given below are the stated specific objectives of the study:

  1. To establish the knowledge of COVID-19 among selected students at Afe Babalola University.
  2. To examine the impact of COVID-19 on the education and academic performance of the students at Afe Babalola University.
  3. To assess the preventive measures for COVID-19 among the students at Afe Babalola University.



Conceptual review

Concept of Coronavirus

Coronavirus disease 2019 (abbreviated “COVID-19”) is an emerging respiratory disease that is caused by a novel coronavirus and was first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, China 2021 (Abdallah and Lee, 2021). The disease is highly infectious, and its main clinical symptoms include fever, dry cough, fatigue, myalgia, and dyspnea. In China, 18.5% of the patients with COVID-19 develop to the severe stage, which is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, difficult-to-tackle metabolic acidosis, and bleeding and coagulation dysfunction (Utibe, 2019).

The first infected patient who had clinical manifestations such as fever, cough, and dyspnea was reported on 12 December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, 2019-nCoV has spread rapidly to other countries via different ways such as airline traveling and now, COVID-19 is the world’s pandemic problem (Felix, 2020).

Coronaviruses (CoV) infections are emerging respiratory viruses and known to cause illness ranging from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (Yin et al., 2019). CoV is zoonotic pathogens that can be transmitted via animal-to-human and human-to-human. Multiple epidemic outbreaks occurred during 2002 (SARS) with ~800 deaths and 2021 (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: MERS-CoV) with 860 deaths (Lee, 2020). Approximately eight years after the MERS-CoV epidemic, the current outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China, has emerged as a global outbreak and significant public health issue. On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). Astonishingly, in the first week of March, a devastating number of new cases have been reported globally, emerging as a pandemic. As of 9 March 2020, more than 110,000 confirmed cases across 105 countries and more than 3800 deaths have been reported (Philemon et al., 2020).

The COVID-19 is spread by human-to-human through droplets, feco-oral, and direct contact, with an incubation period of 2-14 days. So far, no antiviral treatment or vaccine has been recommended explicitly for COVID-19. Therefore, applying the preventive measure to control COVID-19 infection is the utmost critical intervention. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are the primary section in contact with patients and are an important source of exposure to the infected cases in the healthcare settings, thus, expected to be at a high risk of infections. By the end of January, the WHO and CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) have published recommendations for the prevention and control of COVID-19 for HCWs. Indeed, the WHO also initiated several online training sessions and materials on COVID-19 in various languages to strengthen the preventive strategies, including raising awareness, and training HCWs preparedness activities (Malik, 2020). In several instances, misunderstandings of HCWs delayed controlling efforts to provide necessary treatment, implicate rapid spread of infection in hospitals, and also may put the patients’ lives at risk. In this regard, the COVID-19 epidemic offers a unique opportunity to investigate the level of knowledge, and perceptions of HCWs during this global health crisis. Besides, we also explored the role of different information sources in shaping HCWs knowledge and perceptions on COVID-19 during this peak period.

It seems that the current widespread outbreak has been partly associated with a delay in diagnosis and poor infection control procedures. As transmission within hospitals and protection of healthcare workers are important steps in the epidemic, the understanding or having enough information regarding sources, clinical manifestations, transmission routes, and prevention ways among healthcare workers can play roles for this gal assessment (Malik, 2020). Since nurses are in close contact with infected people, they are the main part of the infection transmission chain and their knowledge of 2019-nCoV prevention and protection procedures can help prevent the transmission chain. Iran is one of the most epidemic countries for COVID-19 and there is no information regarding the awareness and attitude of Iranian nurses about this infectious disease 2021 (Abdallah and Lee, 2021).

The virus, its origins and evolution

Coronavirus is believed to be transmitted through respiratory aerosols, which were released while an SARS patient coughs or sneezes (Malik, 2020). Viral infection will spread from the droplets of cough or sneeze of an infected patient are propelled in surroundings via air and will infect the nearby people who are nearby through several ways like mouth, nose or eyes. The virus also can spread by touching infected surfaces, and then touching the mouth, nose, or eye (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020).

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) probably first emerged in Guangdong around November 2002. Many of the affected individuals in November and December 2002 had contact with the live-game trade. The disease was described as an “infectious atypical pneumonia” because of its propensity to cause clusters of disease in families and healthcare workers. The etiological agent of SARS was identified as a new coronavirus not previously endemic in humans 2021 (Abdallah and Lee, 2021). The lack of serological evidence of previous infection in healthy humans suggested that COVID-19 had recently emerged in the human population and that animal-to-human interspecies transmission seemed the most probable explanation for its emergence. Specimens collected from apparently healthy animals (e.g., Himalayan palm civets (Paguma larvata) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides)) found in live wild-game animal markets in Guangdong yielded a COVID-19-like virus with more than 99% nucleotide homology to the human COVID-19. But the wild-animal reservoir in nature still has not been identified conclusively. Many workers who handled animals in these wet markets had antibody to the related animal COVID-19-like virus although they had no history of a SARS-like disease. Taken together with the observation that a number of the SARS-affected individuals in November and December 2002 had epidemiological links to the wild-game animal trade, it is likely that these wet markets in Guangdong provided the interface for transmission to humans. The early interspecies transmissions to humans were probably inefficient, causing little human disease or transmission between humans. Eventually, the animal precursor COVID-19-like virus probably adapted to more efficient human-to-human transmission, and Coronavirus emerged (Kwok, 2021).




Research design

Research design is the strategy employed by a researcher for conducting academic research by addressing research objectives, research questions and hypotheses by collecting, interpreting and analyzing data (Gan et al. 2020). This study used a descriptive survey design method. The survey research design was used because the study relied on primary data collected from sampled respondents.

Population of the study

The population of a study is the represents the total number of individuals from whom the study data was gathered in the study area (Song et al., 2020). The population of this study consisted of students in Afe Babalola University. The total population of the study was 478 students, collected from the class attendance of students from the various departments.

Sampling of the study

In research, sampling is the systematic selection of respondents from a population. This study employed a simple random sampling method to select its sample. The researcher utilized the Taro Yamane formula to evaluate the sample size of the study.



This chapter presents the results of the study on assessing the impact of covid 19 on schools in Nigeria (A case study of Afe Babalola University) by analyzing the quantitative data collected from the compilation of the questionnaire, based on the research objectives and questions. Table 1 shows the return rate of the collected data from 218 distributed questionnaires.




Knowledge of Covid-19 among selected students in Afe Babalola University

The findings of the study showed that the respondents had an excellent knowledge of Covid-19 among selected students in Afe Babalola University. The covid-19 pandemic outbreak was experienced by the whole world with a high death toll. Therefore, it drew attention from every facet of the world’s economy and populace.

Impact of Covid-19 on the education and academic performance of the students in Afe Babalola University.

The findings of the study also revealed that covid-19 adversely affected the education and academic performance of the students in Afe Babalola University. The students experienced a drop in CGPA as compared to their performance before the covid-19 pandemic, students also had to rely on online information and classes due to social distancing. Additionally, COVID-19 pandemic affected the calendar, structure and curriculum of Afe Babalola University.

Preventive measures for Covid-19 among the students in Afe Babalola University.

The study also provided ways to prevent the spread of covid-19 among the students in Afe Babalola University. The study revealed that regular cleaning of hands using soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand rub prevents the spread of covid-19. Also, maintaining a safe distance from anyone who is coughing or sneezing prevents the spread of covid-19. Also, Covering the nose and mouth with one’s bent elbow or a tissue when sneezing prevents the spread of covid-19.

Health authorities and community stakeholders should work towards improving community residents’ attitude and perception towards the severity of the COVID-19 virus, and develop strategies to address the identified barriers to the practice of COVID-19 preventive measures among students. Whereas students knew the preventive measures, they have a high degree of risk-taking behavior which implies the need for this intervention and awareness campaign.


The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study;

Firstly, interventions comprising health literacy and information programmes, and organizing community wide awareness campaign should be targeted at students and community residents at all levels to ensure better perception towards adhering to the preventive measures of COVID-19.

Secondly, health authorities and school stakeholders should form and strengthen linkages in order to formulate strategies to address the barriers to the practice of COVID-19 preventive measures for optimum health promotion among the students in Nigeria.

Lastly, regular monitoring and evaluation to define the scale of impact should be carried out by the health regulatory bodies and stakeholders. This will help determine the success rate achieved from the programmes and also tell on the health outcomes among students in Nigeria.

 Suggestion for Further Studies

Further research should be conducted to determine the adoption efficiency of health promoting behaviors and preventive measures in relation to COVID-19 in the community setting. Also, further research should also be carried out to assess the effectiveness of health channels in mitigating the knowledge gap of students and community residence towards COVID-19 preventive measures.


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