Impact of ICT on Academic Achievement of Biology Students in Senior Secondary Schools Local Government of Adamawa State
Objective of the Study
- To provide an appraisal of ICT and academic performance of biology students in senior secondary schools.
- To determine the impact of ICT on academic performance of biology students in senior secondary schools.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Our focus in this chapter is to critically examine relevant literature that would assist in explaining the research problem and furthermore recognize the efforts of scholars who had previously contributed immensely to similar research. The chapter intends to deepen the understanding of the study and close the perceived gaps.
Precisely, the chapter will be considered in three sub-headings:
- Conceptual Review
- Theoretical Review
- Empirical Review
Information and Communication Technology
Information and Communication Technology entails combination of three comparative complementary concepts – which describe its desired meaning and area of coverage. Information is a message that is transmitted and received in the process of communication and these messages, ideas or feelings are shared by both the receiver and sender at the same time. Communication refers to any process in which people share the same information, ideas and feelings. It involves spoken and written words, body language, personal mannerisms and style (Okorie, 2010). Technology refers to the systematic application of the tools and art. In practice, communication cannot be effective if information is not accurately received by the target audience, the passage of information cannot be complete without the instruments of communication and feedback. Technology makes communication easier, faster and more effective. Today, information and communication technology uses a combination of computer, telecommunication, and information systems services and products. Hence, communication serves as a connection- link between the teacher and the learners for effective pedagogy to take place in the classroom.
There are diverse meanings to ICT by different people depending on the context of its usage. Definition of ICT by some scholars differs:
According to Uzoigwe (2001), ICT involves all technologies employed in order to facilitate the collection, storage, retrieval and communication of information by the fastest means.
Anderson and Glen (2003) defined ICT as generally related to those technologies that are used for accessing, gathering, manipulating, and presenting or communicating information. The technologies could include hardware (e.g. computers and other devices); software applications; and connectivity (e.g. access to the internet, local networking infrastructure, video- conferencing).
Information and Communication Technology, according to Oloruntegbe (2006), can be viewed in the following perspectives:
- As an object, what is learnt is dependent on the type of education and the level of learners. Objects include computer and accessories, internet access, satellite, on line-self learning packages, etc.
- As an assisting tool: ICT here can be used to support teaching in content and methodology. It can equally be used to conduct research, collect data and communicate.
- As a medium of teaching and learning: teachers can teach and equally learners can learn drills, simulations and educational networks.
- As tool for organization and management. This relates to ICT being used to handle school records like time tabling, attendance register, fees collection, and examination registration and examination results.
Computer is an electronic technology device that accepts data and information (input), processes data according to instruction given by the user, search information use for teaching in the classroom, display the result in the way the user will understand and store the information. Onuagha (2006).
World Bank (2002) cited in Adokiye (2008) sees ICT as consisting of hardware, software, networks and media for collection, storage, processing, transmission and presentation of information (voice, data, text and images) for use by means of electronic devices.
According to Alazliner and Kamaruzman (2009) ICT is the application of science in information handling. It is assumed that the use of conceptualized information technology in instructional delivery will enhance effective teaching-learning process to take place.
Bakac and Akbay (2011) describe information and communication technology as all types of technology that facilitate communication and the processing and transmission of information by electronic means (radio, television, telephone, computers, CD-Roms and the internet).
Hence, information communication technology can be defined in this study as a world of electronic and communication device that accepts data and information, creates, processes, stores, retrieves and disseminates them through internal and external networks technology.
From the various definitions of authors above, it is clear that ICT is an indispensable tool that needs to be integrated by every classroom teacher into the teaching and learning process for efficient and effective service delivery and attaining best global practices.
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e. mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
Population of the Study
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals, as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried out to examine ICT and academic performance of biology students in senior secondary schools using some selected secondary schools schools in the Yola South Local Government Area as a case study. Hence, the population of this study covers teachers in the selected secondary schools in Yola South Local Government Area, Adamawa state.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of fifty-three(53) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which fifty (50) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 50 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:
This chapter summarizes the findings on ICT and academic performance of biology students in senior secondary schools using some selected secondary schools in the Yola South Local Government Area as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on ICT and academic performance of private biology students in senior secondary schools using some selected secondary schools in the Yola South Local Government Area as a case study. The study is was specifically set to provide an appraisal of ICT and academic performance of biology students in senior secondary schools, and determine the impact of ICT on academic performance of biology students in senior secondary schools.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teachers in the selected secondary schools in Yola South Local Government Area, Adamawa state.
The use of digital teaching aids contributes to a more relaxed atmosphere in class, students are more motivated to work and most of the students better master the material in the framework of digital educational content, because such lessons are more interesting to students. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- ICT has a significant relation with academic performance of biology students in senior secondary schools as it makes learning easier for students, motivate students’ participation in classroom learning, enhances students commitment towards learning, and facilitates adequate comprehension.
- ICT has significant impact on the academic performance of biology students in senior secondary schools.
The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;
- The school management should as a matter of urgency put more ICT facilities and equipment in providing solutions to specific problems of curricula.
- The school management should recognize the impact and applicability of ICT to enhance qualitative and quantitative decision-making in the successful academic output.
- The high ups should make the compliance of ICT facilities more relevant to encourage skill acquisition and competence of the students.
- The administrators should show more interest in the use of ICT tools to guarantee effectively administrator the learning process of the students.
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