Computer Science Education Project Topics

Impact of ICT on Teaching and Learning Process in the 21st Century

Impact of ICT on Teaching and Learning Process in the 21st Century

Impact of ICT on Teaching and Learning Process in the 21st Century


Objectives of the study

  1. To determine the extent of accessibility of computers to teachers and students in secondary schools in Kano State.
  2. To determine the level of teachers’ and students’ expertise in ICT integration in teaching and learning process in Kano State.
  3. To determine the ways in which ICT is integrated in teaching and learning process by teachers and students.
  4. To determine the extent of implementation of the Ministry of Education policy on  ICT integration in secondary schools in Kano State.




This section reviews literature related to the study on ICT integration in the teaching and learning process in secondary school education. The review is divided into the following: the concept of ICT integration in education; internet connectivity and ICT equipment in schools; teacher professional development in ICT; digital curriculum and content for schools and policy framework for ICT integration in education. The section ends with the discussion on theoretical framework and conceptual framework upon which the study was based.

Concept of ICT Integration in Education

Information Communication Technology (ICT) is basically a tool; it can be a hardware, a software or both. Jackson (2002) advises that teachers should not replace what they teach, but see ICT as a tool just like a calculator, a pen or chalkboard that help them  to teach and students to learn. Hodgkison (2006) and Duplessis (2010) note three types of ICT integration present in schools; the first being, learning about computers without any link to classroom practice. The second is full integration with traditional goals whereby computer is just used as a transmitter of knowledge resulting to just learning “from” the computer and  the third is full integration with constructivist learning space and context, implying that computers are taken as mediational or transformational tools resulting to learning   “with” or “through” using computers. An analysis of South African Institute of Distance Education (SAIDE) (2003) suggests that the generative mode integration is not the norm in most Sub-Saharan African schools.

Muchiri (2008) (citing Poole 1998) indicate that educators in United States of America (USA) are able to put computers to good use in preparing teaching and learning materials. They are able to produce syllabi, schedules and classroom materials professionally and more efficiently using computers. By use of productivity tools such as word processors, database management software, communication systems and graphic tools educators are able to duplicate excellence in managing the process of teaching and learning. Generally, educators have found ICT to be a crucial tool for supporting drills and practice in previously taught skills and concepts in class. Also opportunities for networking and collaborative learning indicate that several principles and theories which promote learner centered constructivist learning can be more easily integrated in teaching. Furthermore, the internet connectivity makes it possible for educational resources to be accessed and exchanged with relative ease.

Nigerian experience on ICT integration has been low despite the government and

Ministry of Education’s efforts to support ICT integration initiatives. Ndiku, (2003) conducted a research on the experience of managers and computer teachers in eight schools in Uasin Gishu with a focus on problem encountered in implementing ICT projects. The research identified the following as the most significant factors:  insufficient number of computers and peripheral devices, teacher lack of adequacy in ICT knowledge; inadequate software for instruction and inadequate technical assistance .The research by Ndiku focused on problems encountered in ICT implementation but did not capture the extent of ICT usage in teaching and learning activities.





The section covers research methodology used in this study.  It is organized under the following sub-headings: research design, target population, sample size and sampling procedure, research instrument, instrument validity, instrument reliability, data collection procedure and data analysis

Research Design

A research design is the structure of research. It holds all the elements in a research project together. It shows how all the major parts of the research project work together to try to address the central research question Kombo and Tromp, (2006). The study adopted a  descriptive survey design.  Kombo, (2006) defines descriptive survey as a method of collecting information by administering a questionnaire to a sample of individuals in order to secure evidence concerning all existing situations, and comparing the present conditions for the next cause of action. Descriptive survey was suitable since this study sought to determine the extent of ICT access and usage in the various teaching and learning activities in secondary school.




This chapter presents the results of data collected from the field. The findings have been presented with respect to each of the specific research questions that guided the study.





This chapter presents summary of the study, research findings, conclusions drawn and the recommendations for the study and suggestions for further research

Summary of the study  

The purpose of the study was to find the extent of information communication technologies integration in the teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Kano State. The objectives of the study were:-  To determine the extent of accessibility of computers to teachers and students , to determine the level of teachers’ and students’ expertise in ICT integration , to determine the ways in which ICT is integrated in teaching and learning process and  to determine the level of implementation of the Ministry of Education policy on  ICT integration . Literature reviewed on ICT integration  laid the background for the study. The main data collection method used was questionnaire administered to teachers, principals and students  in form 3 and  form 4 . An observation checklist was used as a confirmatory tool

The study employed descriptive survey design. 355 students, 245 teachers  were sampled for the study while all 34 principals in all the 34 secondary schools in Kano State, were purposively included  for the study. Research instruments were appraised by my supervisor to enhance   validity. Test- retest method was used to determine instrument reliability where two schools were sampled .The coefficient of reliability of the instrument were 0.93,0.96 and 0.82 for the principals questionnaire ,teachers  and students respectively the  responses from the questionnaires were included in the main study.


From the research findings it is clear that schools in Kano State had installed computers and related peripherals. However they were not adequate for full ICT integration in the teaching and learning process due to the fact that in most schools some ICT equipments were very few for instance desktop and  laptops computers and LCD projectors. The majority of teachers and students alike reported to have had some form of ICT training however, they demonstrated low level of confidence in performance of several skills. Generally there is low extent of ICT integration by both teachers and students and the implementation of ICT integration policy was hampered by various challenges that need to be addressed.

Recommendations of the study  

The following are the recommendations of the study:-

  1. School authorities need to create more facilitation for more ICT integration not only in the school but also in the classrooms including ensuring that all the classes have appropriate infrastructure like sockets for ICT equipments as well as replacing blackboards with whiteboard or smart boards so as to reduce dusty classrooms and improver projection of the work from the computer
  2. Teacher’s training colleges and universities should not only incorporate and strengthen ICT integration training in their teacher education programs but should also ensure that such training are based on equipping the student teachers with skills on actual integration of ICT in their respective disciplines.
  3. Head teachers, policy makers and other education stakeholders in Kano State should develop strategies concerning increasing the use of ICT in teaching and learning through addressing the various challenges identified that are inhibiting full implementation of ICT integration
  4. There is still need for more intensified government as well as private sector support  to secondary school towards acquisition of  and maintenance of ICT equipments and facilities especially multimedia computers and broadband internet,
  5. There is also need for a curricula that is not reliant on text book and course coverage but one that allow room for deep enquiry which is supported by ICT as well as need to avail more relevant digital content for use in secondary schools


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