Impact of Indigenous Music on Radio Content Stations in Benue State
Objectives of the Study
- To examine the level of compliance to the local content provision of NBC code with emphasis on indigenous music by Capital FM
- To examine the quantity of time and number of days allocated for airing indigenous Nigerian
- To determine the percentage of indigenous to foreign content with emphasis on music
- To analyze the challenges in broadcast local content programming with emphasis on indigenous music and suggest possible mitigation
Literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantial findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Bruce, (1994) states that literature review seeks to describe, summarizes, clarify and evaluate the content of primary report. Thus, major works which are related to the research topic will be reviewed.
The Role of Media in the Society
It has been observed by Anderson (1998:89) that our society is media dependent because the media is pervasive in our lives. Mass media takes place through so many channels and are simply put as the major gateway through which large numbers of people receive information and entertainment simultaneously. For this reason, Okpoko (2005) observed that, “society‘s survival and growth depends on a number of things among them is a system of communication through which people could exchange symbols and thus propagate learning at an accelerated rate‖
Bittner, (1989) sees the media ―as a fundamental organism that carries specific roles in the society because the dominant cultures assumption that it is normal is recreated time and time again without question through the media‖. He considers it as a ―mirror‖ of the modern society because of its ability to shape our lives.
Understanding the role which the media plays in the society is paramount. This is because the media is a functional organization that carries out specific roles in the society. It is also important to note that the role of the media has changed overtime but it is still critically examined in furthering our understanding of the society.
Media according to Bittner, (1989:95) plays several roles in society including serving as a means to distribute news and convey information regarding politics and education. Using the United States as an example, he notes that media emerged as a dominant social figure in the 19th century and since then; the media has served the purpose of providing members of the public with real time information on news surrounding local, national and International events.
For Wood, (1997), the role of media is complex and varied. He notes that at times, the media is viewed positively by society although, it is considered over bearing and obnoxious other times because of the kind of programmes they air. He noted that, one beneficial feature of media is its use to promote education which is achieved through using several methods of communication including Television shows and radio programmes.
In another development, Soverin& Tankard (1997) surmise that the media has played significant roles in making the world a global village and to reduce communication gap amongst the people living in the far areas. However, they also noted that ―the media in recent times has become a commercialized sector eyeing the news which is hot and good at selling to the detriment of the audience and active listeners of the station. Bringing it down to Nigeria, the commercialization of the media has in recent times made broadcast stations air programmes that will bring profit to the organization. This can be seen in the airing of western programmes to the detriment of our own indigenous programmes. However, it is pertinent to note that if the media identifies its responsibility and work sincerely and honestly, then it can serve as a great force to build a nation economically, educationally and most importantly, culturally.
The argument of Griffin, (2000) takes another dimension. For him, the media report the news, serve as an intermediary between government and the people and help determine which issues should be discussed and also, keep people actively involved in society and politics. From the above, perhaps the most important role of the media in politics is to report news and the vast majority of people must trust the media to provide them with information. In a similar development, Tejumaiya, (2003) asserts that the role of the media in the society is to provide a public forum for debates between political leaders. For him, many voters learn a great deal about candidates and issues by watching these debates thereby providing a forum for elected officials to explain their action via interviews. It is worthy to note that the role of the media in providing a forum for political leaders to air their views depends solely on the government in power. For this, Enahoro, (1995) observed that General Sani Abacha never granted any interview to any Nigerian media from 1993 to 1998 rather, he granted a couple of interviews to the United States media. This simply means that the system of government in place to a large extent determines the role of the media in a particular society.
Furthermore, the role of the media according to Spear and Seydegart (2000) is to set the agenda by choosing stories to present to the public. It shapes which issues will be debated in public.
For them, ―the images that appear on mass media do not only reflect society, they play a part in directing it as well. This occurs through accessibility which implies that the more frequently and prominently the media cover an issue, the more instances of the issue becomes accessible in audience memories. This simply means that the media‘s concentration on a few issues and subjects leads the public to perceive those issues are more important than other issues.
This chapter deals with the method adopted by the researcher to collect data from the field.
Research design is a prerequisite to the takeoff of any research work. Babbie and Mouton (2001) describes research design as a layout of how the researcher intends to carry out the research process in order to solve the research questions thus, this study will adopt the qualitative and quantitative approaches.
What makes this study qualitative and quantitative is the fact that the two methods were needed to address the research topic in accordance with the research objectives. The study adopts both methods because of their flexibility as it will assist in the collection of data. Moreover it is advised that
Quantitative and Qualitative data collection should be combined in research endeavor because the attraction of such combined techniques stems from the good sense in capitalizing upon the strength of different techniques and combining them in the overall research projects with a view to reaping all the strengths simultaneously. (Imoisili, 1996)
Also, it helped this study to understand the given research problem or topic from the perspective of the population it involves.
Population is the collection of elements about which a research wishes to make inference. Bello and Ajayi, (2005) refer to it as a set of all possible cases of interest in a given research activity.
This study was restricted to Markudi precisely the people of Narayi, Highcost. It chose the area because of the influx and congregation of diverse ethnic groups residing there.
Also, Narayi Highcost is one of the areas in the state where the youths make up most of the population with a handful of them in the Federal, State and Local government civil service. Although, the area is multi-ethnic in nature, Hausa and English are the official languages spoken in the area. The predominant religions are Christianity and Islam. Narayi Highcost shares boundaries with Sabo from the South and Barnawa from the North. The 2006 provisional census results put the population of Narayi Highcost at approximately 5000( Population Statistics record, Benue Ministry of Planning).
PRESENTATION OF DATA, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter deals with the presentation and analysis of data collected through the administration of questionnaires, documentary observation and the conduct of an in-depth interview which will be used in discussing the findings within Capital 90.9FM. The data collated from the administration of the questionnaires was coded using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) then interpreted and analyzed using descriptive tools in form of tables for better understanding and interpretation of findings. The data analysis was designed in such a way that every question is analyzed based on frequencies and their equivalent percentages in addressing the objectives of the study.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary and Conclusion
This study has attempted to look at the extent at which the radio has promoted our indigenous music thereby, promoting the local culture because music is one of the vibrant ways for cultural promotion in a society using Capital 90.9FM as a case study. Using music, we found out that the dominant music programmes in the station are Western inclined though it is not on the high side because there still exist the local songs by Nigerian artistes which does not on the other hand really promote our culture therefore, the good and indigenous music are quite unnoticed.
The study adopted various research instruments for data collection. These instruments include Questionnaires and Interviews as well as Documentary observation.
The Theoretical Frame work used as a tool of analysis is gotten from Raymond Williams, Antonio Gramsci and Robert Kavanagh‘s cultural hegemony. They propounded this theory as a tool to underscore the Cultural Imperialism of the West; hegemony not being forceful like colonialism but a subtle manipulation by the West to Third World Countries, the latter consenting to their dictates in accepting a reproducing the culture of the west in their cultural industries. This in turn contributes to the near total destruction of traditional indigenous cultures of the countries of the Third World. Robert Kavanagh extended this application of hegemony to the struggle by the Third World countries to dominate in cultural production, this he calls alternative hegemony. Therefore, this work adopted hegemony as dominance, power and control of the directors and presenters of broadcast stations and the alternative hegemony as the struggle to counter western music with the introduction of the National Broadcast Code.
This study reveals that music is a very potent tool in the promotion and propagation of cultures though; the West through its music and other media products has been able to export its cultures across the globe pushing quite a great percentage of indigenous music to the background.
This study finds out that music is one of the fastest most viable ways of exporting culture and promoting the Nigerian culture.
Capital FM has to a little extent tried to achieve this intended result of cultural promotion through music but which seems not adequate coupled with the presentation styles which the presenters employ in their music programmes. Though the NBC Code is there to guide media broadcast station but little problems exist in the code which need to be amended.
By and Large, the promotion of the Nigerian culture through music has not really being achieved in Capital FM but the present condition is not irreversible as it can be corrected not just by the station but by the general society together with the policy makers because this problem goes beyond the NBC as it is an issue that the society needs to listen to and answer. It‘s really us, what do we want, what do we really want to promote, do we promote the good stuff or just because of money, we decide to go for the commercially viable songs in the market, it‘s something we all need to come together and address as it is a National issue.
Furthermore, the Communication policy of Nigeria should not only specify the percentage of local content but also stipulate the percentage of local content that should promote cultural development because attaining cultural development in Nigeria through broadcasting seems to be a far-fetched task.
In essence, Theatre has been and is still a means of promoting our identity as Nigerians. Since music is one of the elements of Theatre and also an important aspect of culture, there‘s the need for Nigerian music artistes to go back to their roots, sing language based songs and avoid applying the method of code-switching, songs that reflect our local colours, philosophy, folklore and what belongs to us as different from the way the Americans do theirs. The media on the other hand with reference to radio should avoid or bring to a minimal the number of western music they air because the future of Mass Media with reference to the radio must be considered of utmost importance in achieving the cultural goals of the nation.
In view of the findings of this research, the study recommends the following strategies for the promotion of indigenous music;
Capital FM should scout for more ways to promote the local culture through music. This they can achieve by introducing more music programmes with indigenous content so that there can be an equal representation of all the ethnic groups in Nigeria.
Capital FM should increase the number of days allocated to the airing of indigenous music as it is not adequate to promote the local culture.
Music presenters and their superiors need to specify when and where indigenous music should feature rather than mixing them up with western music.
Music presenters should be adequately trained on their presentation style.
Presenters should sit with their directors before going on air so as to know the kind of music that will be played by each presenter.
Concerning the NBC Code and the Nigerian music industry, the following suggestions are recommended.
Since the globalization of the world has made it easy for artistes to be influenced, it is still possible to build a barrier against it by holding an authentic cultural value. With the technological advancement and innovations, what the Nigerian music industry should do is to advocate that artistes return to their roots and compose songs that reflects our local colour, language and ethos because it has become clear that music artistes now concentrate on the beats rather than good lyrics.
The Nigerian music industry should as a matter of fact be a cultural ambassador for Nigeria worldwide. They should promote indigenous language through music instead of dancing to the tune of the western cultural hegemony by accepting and reproducing the cultures of the west in their music thereby being hybridized artistes who are neither here nor there. The struggle against cultural hegemony demands that there be no deviation from local inspiration and firmly rooted local thoughts.
The government should be ready to sponsor indigenous music programmes in our broadcast stations. When this happens, it will be an indicator that the government is ready to promote and export our culture worldwide as contained in the NBC Code.
NBC Should also sit with heads of media houses to discuss on the kind of music media broadcast stations should air rather than giving rules and regulations from afar as it is noted by Atume, (2014: 16) that they depend on the reports of individuals to get to know the station that is going against the code.
There is also the need for the National Broadcast code to be revisited as it is not every local content that promotes culture especially in music. If the main reason of the local content as contained in the NBC Code is to promote the Nigerian culture then there is a problem with most of our Nigerian music and the NBC Code respectively.
The executives of the NBC should do better by sitting with music producers and artistes to tell them the kind of music they should churn out, what to include and what not to include thereby, guiding them on some of the things they don‘t want.
It would not be a bad idea if NBC, music artistes/producers and media practitioners sit and discuss the way forward for Nigerian culture and the best way to promote it through music even in the face of globalization.
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