Physics Education Project Topics

21st Century Skills in Re-engineering Health Education, Safety Education and Wellness Practices for Sustainable Development in Sapele Urban

21st Century Skills in Re-engineering Health Education, Safety Education and Wellness Practices for Sustainable Development in Sapele Urban

21st Century Skills in Re-engineering Health Education, Safety Education and Wellness Practices for Sustainable Development in Sapele Urban

Chapter One 

Objective of the study

General objective: the general objective of this research was to identify the 21st century skills in re-engineering health education, safety education and wellness practices for sustainable health development in Sapele Region.

Specific objectives;

the specific objectives were;

  1. To identify main success on the health of mother and children after 21st century skills in re-engineering health education, safety education and wellness practices in Delta state.
  2. To identify main challenges on the health of mother and children after 21st century skills in re-engineering health education, safety education and wellness practices in the local government.



 School Health Programmes In Nigeria

School health programmes are series of activities harmonized and delivered in the school environment for the promotion of the health and development of the school community (FGN, 2006). Series of activities are required to strengthen a school capacity to promote a healthy background for living, learning and working. The combination of such activities would engender conducive learning atmosphere, strive to improve the health of all within the system, decrease life threatening circumstances like malaria, waterborne diseases, drug and alcohol abuse, malnutrition and more importantly, inculcate in the learners knowledge, skills and attitudinal dispositions that are essential to healthy living. The scope and status of the programmes covered in the policy are examined thus,

Healthful school environment: The policy provides that for schools to be healthy, all services, facilities and tools needed for physio-social and emotional well-being must be assured, provided and preserved in a sustainable manner. Accordingly, such schools are located in siren environment free from noise, cold, heat, have adequate and appropriate building, furniture, toilet facilities that are gender sensitive, waste disposal facilities and safe water supply, recreational and sport equipment, perimeter fencing, observance of annual school health Days among others. Keen observations of these indices indicate that this policy provision is not adequately implemented. For instance, in 2017, the report of epidemic outbreak in a popular government secondary school in Lagos state went viral (Uwandu, 2017 & Folarin, 2017). According to the report, the epidemic outbreak left more than 200 students sick and two dead in the hospitals at different times within a short period. The students were alleged to have been treated for abdominal pains, fever, vomiting and diarrhea which were attributed to unhealthy and unhygienic environment of the school. In an earlier occurrence, Maradun (2016) reported that two students were killed of food poisoning in Zamfara State. These instances depict the poor enforcement of the salient provision on healthy school environment as prescribed in the School Health Policy. The report of Ademokun, Osungbade, and Obembe (2012) that, the implementation of SHP was poor especially in the sphere of healthful school environment, school managers lack good knowledge of the NSHP and that the health programmes in their schools did not comply with the requirements of the policy confirmed these scenarios.

  1. School feeding services: The cardinal target of this policy provision is to provide all children enrolled in schools nationwide with a meal per day in order to improve their nutritional status, reduce hunger and enhance their learning ability (FME, 2006). Although this provision has been in place over a decade, the indices of the services such as meal provision, food fortification and supplementation, regular de-worming and sanitation and hygiene practices especially among food vendors are not consistently and comprehensively available in the The report of Tijani, Opara and Jime (2018) that the school feeding programme in Maduguri metropolis does not reduce or satisfy hunger due to inconsistency or irregular availability of the mealconfirmed this submission. Where the programmes were found to have improved the nutrition status of the children as reported in Falade, Otemuyiwa, Oluwasola, Oladipo and Adeusi (2012), the programmes did not cover all the children in basic and post basic schools.
  2. Skill based health education: Removing ignorance of healthy habits and creating awareness on harmful substance/practices is essential to having a healthy school Thus, the skill-based health education was designed to facilitate the inculcation of sound health knowledge, attitudes, skills and practices among learners. This is to be achieved by providing teachers and learners with curriculum covering personal hygiene, diseases, mental and social health among others. Implementation of this curriculum appears poor despite its availability especially at the basic level of education. For instance, Alafin, Adesegun, Izang and Alausa (2019) reported that all the rural community primary schools investigated had poor skill-based health education. They found that none of the schools had

SHP implementation guideline and that majority did not have health-based information, education and communication (IEC) materials in form of posters and textbooks. In the same vein, Adebayo, Makinde and Omode (2018) reported that the training and involvement of public primary school teachers in the school health programmes was suboptimal in their study area. This implies that the delivery of skill-based health education could not have been effective since the facilities needed for its delivery are not available. It is thus, not surprising that Alex-Wart and Akani (2014) and Adebayo and Onadeko (2016) found that health instructions are given as integral part of other subjects without instructional materials and that teachers had inadequate knowledge of school health programmes in both rural and urban schools

  1. School health services:The SHP recommends the provision of curative and preventive health services in order to promote the health of learners and others in the school community. These services include pre-entry screening, routine examination, health records, sickbay, first aid box and referral services, and advisory and counseling services for the school community and parents. These services are to be rendered by specialists such as Medical doctors, Nurses, Health Educators, School Guidance Counselors, Dieticians among others. The report of Alafin, Adesegun, Izang and Alausa (2019) revealed that these services and the specialists are not available in many schools. The report showed that none of the school investigated conduct pre-entry and routine medical screening for their teachers and The reports of the Ondo state ministry of economic planning and budget (2010) and that of Akpabio (2010) confirmed that this worrisome status of school health service has persists over the years.
  2. School, Home and Community Relationship: The policy aptly noted that life at home should complement a healthy life-style provided in the school in order to achieve a balanced development of the This necessitated the need for interaction between the school and the homes in form of home visit by teachers, nurses, social workers and regular visit of the school by the parents. More important is the communication of health status of learners to their parents/guardians by the school health personnel as well as active participation of parents in health planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of health services. Adedokun, Osungbade and Obembe cited in Diana and Adebayo (2019) reported that the relationship between the school and the home was good while it was poor between the school and the community. These scholars however lamented that the implementation of the SHP across the country was sub-optimal and remains at the minimum level.





Research design

Achievements and challenges were carried on the health of mothers and children after the 21st century skills in re-engineering health education, safety education and wellness practices in Delta state. To conduct this research both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed.

Interview and focused group discussion were used for qualitative  method. Questionnaires were administered to collect quantitative data.


In order to draw representative sample, the study employed different sampling techniques. Purposive or judgment sampling was found appropriate and the selection was made based on the accessibility from woreda town. Out of thirty-one Local governments in the Warri, local government was selected because of its proximity.

The study populations are 39 mothers and caregivers having children under five years, 2 local government Health extension workers, 29 local government health development army and 2 health extension program supervisors from Warri health center. According to data observed from local government health extension workers, there are 200 mothers and caregivers between age 15-49 and 200 local government health development army registered in the local government.

The required sample size is 20% of mothers and caregivers who have children from 0-5 years, 14.5 % of local government health development army, 2 health extension workers of the local government and one health extension program supervisor and 1 health center head. Mother/care givers and local government health development army were selected using systematic random sampling techniques. FGD participants were selected from the same population. Igbo version of questionnaire was used to collect data from each participants of the study. The questionnaires were tested in small group of similar population and improved based on the feedback obtained.

Informed consents of the respondents have been consulted. Privacy and confidentiality has been maintained and the researcher explained to the respondents the objective of and procedures of the study.



The objective of the thesis is to investigate the achievement observed and existing challenges after the 21st century skills in re-engineering health education, safety education and wellness practices on the health of mothers and children. The aims of this chapter is to give explanation about collected data’s on results achieved, existing challenge and what do next to improve the health of mother and child health.




According to the study, the following outcomes are obtained. These are; Prevalence of communicable disease minimized, child-feeding practices improved, using health institution for different purpose increased, and community started to trust health extension workers, there is an improvement in health facilities, planning, monitoring and evaluation together with stake holders are the main achievement of health extension program on mothers and children health.

Nutritional problem, communicable diseases are still challenges of mothers and children health that are identified by the research.

Furthermore, low family planning and postnatal services, low participation of stakeholders on HEP and distance and poor health facility discourages women to visit health institution regularly.

More over less attention is given for health development army selection, coaching, inadequate ambulance services, high number of illiterate for mothers and health development army are main challenges that need attention to improve mother and children health.


Based on the findings of the study the investigator recommends the following suggestions;

  1. Improvements recorded on reviewing the 21st century skills in re-engineering health education, safety education and wellness practices like vaccination breast feeding practices and others should be maintained and used as an entry points to improve other
  2. Because of high literacy rate low number of mothers not use family planning utilization that lead to high family size. Therefore, attention should be given for mothers education and
  3. Low awareness on the importance of skilled delivery assistance on one side and cultural barriers on the other side made most mothers delivered at home. So awareness must be raised and barriers removed.
  4. Less training provided and high illiteracy rate of health development army are great challenge to meet objective of health strategy, because of this health development army selection and training should get better
  5. Misbehavior of some health professionals and poor health facility discourage mothers to seek health services in health institutions. Therefore, professional ethics should maintain and disciplinary measures should be taken.
  6. This study indicated that awareness creation, training, workshop and education are not the end result to minimize maternal death. Rather it is important to give emphasis for accessibility of health facility, lack of professional commitments, medication and medical equipment problems, procedural guides to minimize maternal death due to pregnancy


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