Impact of Infrastructural Development in a Rural Area Using Doko in Niger State as a Case Study
Objectives of the Study
The major objective of this study was to examine the effect of infrastructure on rural development in Doko, Niger state.
Specifically, the objectives of this study are to examine the followings:
- To analyze the effect of school infrastructure on rural development in Doko, Niger state.
- To analyze the effect of electricity infrastructure on rural development in Doko, Niger state.
- To analyze the effect of marker infrastructure on rural development in Doko, Niger state.
- To analyze the effect of road infrastructure on rural development in Doko, Niger state.
- To analyze the effect of healthcare infrastructure on rural development in Doko, Niger state.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Our focus in this chapter is to critically examine relevant literature that would assist in explaining the research problem and furthermore recognize the efforts of scholars who had previously contributed immensely to similar research. The chapter intends to deepen the understanding of the study and close the perceived gaps.
Precisely, the chapter will be considered in three sub-headings:
- Conceptual Framework
- Theoretical Framework
- Empirical framework
Concept of Development
The term development is a multi-dimensional concept, and thus, appears elusive as its precise meaning is debatable. However, we would attempt to define development from different perspectives by exploring various scholars view on the concept. The term development means different things to different people. Some people take it to mean change, others take it as advancement, improvement, and progress, and some scholars regard it as modernization or westernization.
Some scholars have argued that for the concept to be properly understood it must be pinned down to a specific sphere of life. In this respect, terms such as political and administrative development are taken as contributory factors to the change in the quality and span of life of people, such contributory factors are inter-related and interdependent, which cannot be separated but rather would be viewed simultaneously as development indicators and whichever variants of development we look at as indicators of positive change in the quality and span of life of the people it must include:
- Ability to feed, clothe and shelter oneself resulting from more income earned from one’s occupation and from the provision of infrastructural facilities like roads water, electricity, telecommunications and other factors of production.
- Ability to live a longer life as a result of provision of better health and medical facilities, prevention of disease through better sanitation and other preventive measures.
- Ability to read, write and to understand forces surrounding people through the provision of formal and informal education.
- Ability to participate meaningfully in political activities and in policy making both at societal and governmental level.
These are in no way exhaustive of things that constitute development, when these and a host of other things take place in society or community we say there is development. Man is the centre of development, the ultimate goal is his well-being his happiness and his comfort.
Generally, development is a concept, which explains the general upliftment in the material, social and psychological conditions of a given human society. There are various scholars‘ views about development, however only few will be discussed in this study. Development implies a change that is desirable. Society is dynamic, and so , what is desirable at a particular time, place a nd i n a particular culture may not always be desirable a to the replaces or at other times and in the same cultural milieu. Therefore, it is impossible to think of a universally acceptable definition of development. But developments in general include spectrum such as:
- Increase in real income per capita(economic growth);
- Improvement in distribution of income(equity);
- Political and economic freedom; and access
- Equitable to resources, education, healthcare, employment opportunities, and justice (Palanithurai, 2010).
Thus, Anyebe (2014) defines development to mean total transformation of a system, but when used to describe a nation, describe the transformation of the various aspect of the life of the people of the nation. He went on to assert that development implies a progression from a lower and often undesirable state to a high and preferred one. It is a continuous process of positive change in the quality and span of life of a person or group of persons of a nation, it is ascension from a lower to a higher stage.
Development is generally associated with positive socio-economic change. It means moving forward to something that is better than the present (Asema, 2011). Development is empowerment; it is about encouraging the local people to take control of their own lives, expressing their own demands and finding their own solutions to their problems (Brookfield, 2012). Development implies qualitative change in the way the society carries out its activities such as through more progressive attitude by the population, the adoption of more effective social organisation and more advanced technology which may have been developed elsewhere, it is a continuing process that begins from conception to death, it is the growth of human throughout the life span (Leigh, 2013).
From a policy perspective, economic development can be defined as efforts that seek to improve the economic well-being and quality of life for a community by creating and/or retaining jobs and supporting or growing in comes and tax base. Development is fundamental about enhancing the factors of productive capacity land, labour, capital and technology of a national, state or local economy (Asema, 2010). Development is the development of economic wealth of countries or region for the well-being of their inhabitants. It is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political and social wellbeing of its people (Monisola, 2012).
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e. mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
Population of the Study
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals, as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried out to examine the impact of infrastructural development in a rural area using Doko in Niger state as a case study. Hence, the population of this study comprises of residents of Doko in Niger state.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of hundred and twenty (120) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which 100 were returned. The analysis of this study is based on the number returned.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of infrastructure on rural development in Doko, Niger state. The background of the study was made to give a description of the area of concern. However, certain problems were identified under the statement of the problem which include among others, lack inadequate provision of school and market infrastructures as well as dilapidation of the existing infrastructures. Three hypotheses were postulated and were all rejected based on the statistical result.
The significance of this study can be seen from the practical and theoretical perspectives which could serve as a basis for policy formulation for the government at all levels, it could also serve as reference for the academia. The methodology of the study centre‘s on triangulation method of data collection, similarly quantitative method of data analysis was utilized using the SPSS packaged. A cluster multi-stage sampling was adopted as sampling techniques.
Under administration of questionnaires close ended were adopted, literature review was examined, the researcher endeavour to look at various author and scholars on the field of the study. The infrastructure theory as propounded by Frischmann 2007 was adopted to serve as the theoretical frame work of the study, data collected were presented and analysed using SPSS. Chapter five contains summary conclusion and findings of the study.
The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between infrastructure and rural development in Doko, Niger state. The result of the regression analysis indicated that all the five null hypotheses were rejected and the alternate ones were accepted which implies that there is significance relationship between infrastructure and rural development (school, electricity, market, road, and healthcare infrastructure). Conclusively, findings of this study have shown that socio- economic infrastructures model is a viable mechanism for rural development. The study recommends adequate provision of socio-economic infrastructure in the rural areas as means of achieving rural development. The study specifically recommends that:
Base on the findings of the study the following recommendations were made.
The study recommend that government should provide more school in the rural areas and school facilities such classes, furniture and teaching aid should also be provided by the government in collaboration with NGOs and other donors organization.
More rural communities should be provided by electricity in order to boost their social and economic activities for improved standard of living.
Government should provide more market infrastructure in the rural areas in order to facilitate economic activities so as to increase the income of the rural people thereby developing the rural communities.
Government should provide a mechanism for maintaining the existing road in the state both the feeder and the tired road.
Government in collaboration with NGOs and private sector should provide more healthcare facilities in the rural areas as well as providing qualified medical personnel.
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