Estate Management Project Topics

Impact of Land Speculation on Private Property Development (A Case Study of Oke-Ose Area of Ilorin South/East Local Government, Kwara State)

Impact of Land Speculation on Private Property Development (A Case Study of Oke-Ose Area of Ilorin SouthEast Local Government, Kwara State)

Impact of Land Speculation on Private Property Development (A Case Study of Oke-Ose Area of Ilorin South/east Local Government, Kwara State)

Chapter One

Aim and Objectives

The primary aim of this study is to assess the impact of land speculation on private property development in the Oke-ose area of Ilorin South/East Local Government. To achieve this aim, the following specific objectives are outlined:

  1. To identify the drivers of land speculation in the Oke-ose area.
  2. To examine the impact of land speculation on property development in the study area.
  3. To propose strategies for mitigating the negative effects of land speculation on private property development.



Conceptual Review

Land Speculation

Land speculation, as defined by Andreasson et al. (2021), refers to the strategic practice of acquiring and holding land with the anticipation of future financial gains. This process involves individuals or entities purchasing land not for immediate use but rather with the expectation that its value will appreciate over time. The characteristics of land speculation are rooted in the speculative nature of the real estate market, where investors seek to capitalize on fluctuations in land values for profit.

One defining characteristic of land speculation is the speculative motive itself, driven by economic incentives and market dynamics. Andreasson et al. (2021) highlight that economic drivers play a significant role in motivating individuals to engage in land speculation. Economic drivers encompass factors such as the overall economic climate, interest rates, and market trends. For instance, during periods of economic growth, the demand for land often increases, encouraging speculation as individuals aim to capitalize on rising property values. Conversely, economic downturns may prompt speculation as investors seek to acquire undervalued land with the expectation of future appreciation.

Motivations for land speculation are diverse, ranging from the potential for substantial returns on investment to strategic positioning within a developing area. Andreasson et al. (2021) suggest that the prospect of lucrative financial gains acts as a primary motivator for individuals engaging in land speculation. The expectation that the land’s value will increase over time, driven by factors such as urbanization, infrastructure development, or rezoning, propels investors to participate in speculative activities.

Furthermore, the motivations for land speculation often align with broader economic goals, including wealth accumulation and portfolio diversification. Investors may view land as a tangible asset that can serve as a hedge against inflation, providing a stable and appreciating asset in times of economic uncertainty (Andreasson et al., 2021). Additionally, strategic motivations may involve speculators positioning themselves in areas expected to undergo significant development, anticipating future demand and subsequent increases in land values.

 Private Property Development

Private property development involves a comprehensive series of processes and stages that contribute to the transformation of land into residential, commercial, or industrial real estate (Agboola, Scofield, & Amidu, 2017). According to the insights provided by Agboola et al., these processes typically commence with land acquisition, encompassing the identification and purchase of suitable parcels for development. This is followed by a rigorous planning phase, where developers engage in feasibility studies, environmental assessments, and the design of the proposed development. Subsequently, the construction phase involves the physical realization of the development, often involving collaboration with architects, contractors, and various stakeholders. Post-construction, developers engage in marketing and sales activities to attract buyers or tenants, marking the completion of the development cycle.

The economic implications of private property development are significant and multifaceted, according to Agboola et al. (2017). Such developments contribute to economic growth by generating employment opportunities, particularly within the construction industry.





In the pursuit of understanding the intricate dynamics of land speculation and its impact on private property development in the Oke-ose area, a meticulous research design was crucial. By selecting an appropriate research methodology, the study aimed to contribute valuable insights into the economic forces shaping land use patterns.

Target Population

In establishing a comprehensive target population for the study, which encompasses both residents and stakeholders, the research aims to enhance its external validity (Charmaz, 2016). This inclusive approach aligns seamlessly with the overarching goal of the study, which is to capture a wide array of perspectives on the impact of land speculation in the Oke-ose area (Easterby-Smith et al., 2018).

Charmaz (2016) emphasizes the significance of defining a target population that reflects the diversity of experiences and insights relevant to the research question. By incorporating the viewpoints of both residents and stakeholders, the study seeks to ensure that its findings are not only representative but also applicable to the broader context of the Oke-our community. This methodology aligns with the qualitative-quantitative continuum explored by Newman and Benz (2020), acknowledging the importance of incorporating multiple perspectives to construct a holistic understanding of the complex phenomenon of land speculation.



Data Presentation




Summary of Findings

The findings of this study, rooted in a comprehensive exploration of land speculation dynamics in the Oke-ose area, provide nuanced insights into the complex interplay of factors influencing property development. The study employed a quantitative survey research design, collecting data from 120 respondents through a structured questionnaire, analyzed using SPSS27. The key objectives were to understand the drivers of land speculation, assess its impact on property development, and explore strategies to mitigate its adverse effects.

Tables 4.6 to 4.9 shed light on the respondents’ perspectives regarding the factors influencing land speculation. The majority of respondents acknowledged the significance of both economic incentives and the lack of clear land-use policies in driving speculative behaviours. Economic motivations, such as potential high returns, were deemed substantial drivers, as indicated by 67.3% of respondents either strongly agreeing or agreeing. Furthermore, 88.5% of respondents acknowledged that unclear land-use policies contribute significantly to speculative practices.

These findings underscore the importance of aligning economic policies and regulatory frameworks to deter speculative activities. The data suggests a need for policymakers to craft transparent land-use policies that provide clear guidelines for property development, reducing ambiguity and deterring speculative practices. Additionally, addressing economic incentives, such as through taxation, could help steer investment towards more sustainable and community-focused endeavors.


Moving to Tables 4.10 to 4.13, which explore the perceived impact of land speculation on property development, the majority of respondents expressed concerns about the negative consequences of speculative activities. A significant proportion, 67.3%, strongly agreed or agreed that land speculation negatively affects the affordability of housing in the Oke-ose area. This finding is crucial, indicating that speculative practices may be contributing to housing market challenges, potentially excluding certain segments of the population from affordable housing opportunities.

Moreover, Tables 4.12 and 4.13 reveal that respondents believe speculation compromises the quality of property developments and leads to an unequal distribution of developed land in the Oke-ose community. Overwhelmingly, 70.2% strongly agreed or agreed that speculative activities contribute to the delay and disruption of planned property development projects, and 72.1% expressed concerns about the compromised quality of property developments due to speculation.

These findings highlight the multifaceted impact of land speculation on the local property market, affecting not only affordability but also the overall quality and distribution of developed land. Policymakers and urban planners should consider these implications when formulating strategies to promote sustainable property development and ensure that the benefits are accessible to a broader spectrum of the community.

Tables 4.14 to 4.17 delve into potential strategies for mitigating the negative effects of land speculation, providing crucial insights into the preferences and attitudes of respondents. A clear consensus emerges regarding the effectiveness of specific measures: implementing clear and enforceable land-use policies, community-based land management, taxing speculative transactions, and establishing partnerships between the government and the private sector.

The majority of respondents, ranging from 78.8% to 84.6%, expressed strong agreement or agreement with these proposed strategies. These findings underscore the importance of a holistic and collaborative approach to address land speculation. Regulatory measures, community engagement, economic incentives, and public-private partnerships can collectively contribute to a more sustainable and inclusive property development landscape.

In summary, the study’s findings contribute valuable perspectives to the discourse on land speculation and property development in the Oke-ose area. The acknowledgment of economic drivers, the impact on housing affordability and quality, and the endorsement of specific mitigation strategies provide a foundation for informed policymaking and urban planning. Policymakers and stakeholders can leverage these insights to formulate targeted interventions that promote responsible and inclusive property development while addressing the challenges posed by land speculation in the study area.


In conclusion, the hypotheses tested in this study, aimed at understanding the relationship between the drivers of land speculation and property development, assessing the significance of land speculation’s impact, and exploring the effectiveness of mitigation strategies, have yielded valuable insights. The findings overwhelmingly support the rejection of the null hypotheses, indicating that there is indeed a significant relationship between the drivers of land speculation and property development, the impact of land speculation on property development is substantial, and implementing strategies to mitigate land speculation significantly affects private property development.

These results underline the intricate dynamics at play in the Oke-ose area, where economic incentives, unclear land-use policies, and speculative activities intertwine to shape the local property development landscape. The study further emphasizes the urgency of adopting effective measures to regulate speculative behaviours, enhance housing affordability, and ensure the sustainability and inclusivity of property development initiatives. Policymakers and urban planners can leverage these findings to tailor interventions that address the unique challenges posed by land speculation in the Oke-ose community, fostering a more equitable and resilient local property market.


The following recommendations were proposed for this stdy:

  1. Strengthen Land-Use Policies: Given the identified impact of unclear land-use policies on speculative behaviours, there is a critical need to review and strengthen existing policies. Clear, enforceable regulations should be established to guide property development, curb land speculation, and ensure sustainable urban growth.
  2. Community-Based Land Management: Encouraging community involvement in land management can foster a sense of responsibility and ownership. Local residents should actively participate in decision-making processes related to property development, ensuring that developments align with community needs and aspirations.
  3. Taxation on Speculative Transactions: To discourage speculative activities and fund community development, implementing taxes on speculative transactions is recommended. This can serve as both a deterrent for speculation and a means to generate revenue for local development initiatives.
  4. Partnerships for Sustainable Development: Establishing collaborative partnerships between the government and the private sector is crucial. Such partnerships can promote sustainable and inclusive property development by combining resources, expertise, and a shared commitment to community welfare.
  5. Clear Communication Strategies: The study highlights the role of communication in shaping public perception and influencing land-related behaviours. Governments and stakeholders should employ clear and effective communication strategies to educate the public about the consequences of land speculation and the benefits of sustainable property development.
  6. Regular Review of Policies: In the dynamic landscape of urban development, policies should be subject to regular review and updates. This ensures that they remain relevant, responsive to emerging challenges, and aligned with the evolving needs of the community.
  7. Incentives for Affordable Housing: Governments can introduce incentives for developers who prioritize affordable housing projects. This can include tax breaks, grants, or other financial incentives to encourage the construction of housing that meets the needs of a diverse population.
  8. Capacity Building for Urban Planners: Enhancing the capacity of urban planners and relevant stakeholders is crucial for effective land management. Training programs, workshops, and continuous professional development opportunities can ensure that those responsible for shaping urban landscapes are well-equipped to address the complexities of property development and speculation.


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