Impact of Nutrition and Adequate Rest on Cognitive Behavior Among Primary School Pupils
Objective of the study
The objectives of the study are;
- To ascertain the relationship between nutrition and cognitive behavior among primary school pupils
- To ascertain whether nutrition can affect primary school pupil academic performance
- To ascertain the psychological effect of nutrition on primary school pupil cognitive behavior
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
DIETARY INFLUENCES ON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
MICRONUTRIENTS AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Omega-3 fatty acids
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the effect of essential fatty acids, particularly long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), on cognitive brain development. Of the human brain’s dry weight 60% is comprised of lipids, of which 20% are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; which is an omega3 fatty acid) and arachidonic acid (AA; an omega-6 fatty acid). These represent the two core fatty acids found in gray matter (Benton, 2010b; De Souza et al., 2011). Furthermore, the supply of LCPUFAs from food, especially the omega-3 fatty acids, including DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), is frequently inadequate for children as well as for adults (Schuchardt et al., 2010). Essential fatty acids play a central functional role in brain tissue. They are not only the basic components of neuronal membranes, but they modulate membrane fluidity and volume and thereby influence receptor and enzyme activities in addition to affecting ion channels. Essential fatty acids are also precursors for active mediators that play a key role in inflammation and immune reaction. They promote neuronal and dendritic spine growth and synaptic membrane synthesis, and hence influence signal processing, and neural transmission. In addition, essential fatty acids regulate gene expression in the brain (McCann and Ames, 2005; Eilander et al., 2007; Innis, 2007; Cetina, 2008; Wurtman, 2008; Ramakrishnan et al., 2009; Ryan et al., 2010; Schuchardt et al., 2010; De Souza et al., 2011). Therefore, the existing literature strongly suggests that essential fatty acids are critical for brain development and function. It has been suggested that the fast growth of the human cerebral cortex during the last two million years was strongly related to the balanced dietary intake of LCPUFAs (Broadhurst et al., 1998), specifically with an equal ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet (Simopoulos, 1999). Evidence proposes that the modern Homo sapiens, whose brain developed significantly relative to its ancestors, lived near rivers and oceans, where seafood and fish were abundant (Crawford et al., 1999). The rise in intellectual and brain development in Homo Sapiens also coincided with tool making and language development (Crawford et al., 1999; Broadhurst et al., 2002). During the last 150 years, it is believed that the balance of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids has shifted in favor of omega-6 fatty acids in the diet, resulting in a ratio of 20–25:1 and a dietary deficiency in omega-3 fatty acids (Simopoulos, 1999). A diet that is deficient in omega-3 fatty acids may have health and developmental implications (Simopoulos, 2008). A number of epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between maternal fish intake (which is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids) during pregnancy and cognitive development in children (Daniels et al., 2004; Hibbeln et al., 2007; Jacobson et al., 2008; Oken et al., 2008a,b; Boucher et al., 2011).
The researcher used descriptive research survey design in building up this project work the choice of this research design was considered appropriate because of its advantages of identifying attributes of a large population from a group of individuals. The design was suitable for the study as the study sought impact of nutrition and adequate rest on cognitive behavior among primary school pupils
Sources of data collection
Data were collected from two main sources namely:
(i)Primary source and
These are materials of statistical investigation which were collected by the research for a particular purpose. They can be obtained through a survey, observation questionnaire or as experiment; the researcher has adopted the questionnaire method for this study.
These are data from textbook Journal handset etc. they arise as byproducts of the same other purposes. Example administration, various other unpublished works and write ups were also used.
Population of the study
Population of a study is a group of persons or aggregate items, things the researcher is interested in getting information impact of nutrition and adequate rest on cognitive behavior among primary school pupils. 200 staff of selected primary schools in Uyo was selected randomly by the researcher as the population of the study.
PRESENTATION ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Efforts will be made at this stage to present, analyze and interpret the data collected during the field survey. This presentation will be based on the responses from the completed questionnaires. The result of this exercise will be summarized in tabular forms for easy references and analysis. It will also show answers to questions relating to the research questions for this research study. The researcher employed simple percentage in the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain impact of nutrition and adequate rest on cognitive behavior among primary school pupils. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of nutrition and adequate rest on cognitive behavior among primary school pupils
This study was on impact of nutrition and adequate rest on cognitive behavior among primary school pupils. Three objectives were raised which included: To ascertain the relationship between nutrition and cognitive behavior among primary school pupils, to ascertain whether nutrition can affect primary school pupil academic performance and to ascertain the psychological effect of nutrition on primary school pupil cognitive behavior. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected primary schools in Uyo. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents headmasters, teachers, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
Ratcliffe, Merrigan, Rogers, and Goldberg (2009) investigated the impact of participating in a school garden program. They analyzed the students’ ability to identify, willingness to try, preference for, and overall consumption of vegetables. Ratcliffe et al. found many positive connections with the program. Students who participated in the hands-on program were better able to identify vegetables and their preference for vegetables increased significantly. Students who participated in the program were willing to taste a variety of vegetables including those types that weren’t grown in the school garden. Consumption of vegetable varieties during school also increased. Unfortunately, it was not known if the garden-based learning experience increased the number of vegetable servings that students actually ate or if it made them healthier
Schools need to offer only foods that promote a healthy school environment. Offering high-energy, low-nutrient food in vending machines, a la carte lines, or school stores allows for competition with healthy food offerings. This competition needs to be eliminated by offering only foods and beverages that contribute to meeting the dietary needs of students. Snack choices should be made based on meeting students’ dietary needs and not on profits. Parents who send bag lunches for their children should be encouraged to send nutritious food that provides a healthy meal. Parent Nutrition newsletters could be sent home with sample menus and up-to-date nutrition information to help parents make good food choices for their student. To stay consistent with offering healthy foods, parties, fund-raisers, and concession stands should also have guidelines that adhere to the healthy food message that the school will promote.
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