Impact of Teacher Quality on the Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Social Studies
Objectives of the Study
This study is set to achieve the following objectives:
- Determine the effect of teachers‟ qualification on the Academic Performance Of Junior Secondary School Students In Social studies.
- Investigate the effect of teacher‟s years of teaching experience on the Academic Performance Of Junior Secondary School Students In Social studies.
- Establish the impact of teacher‟s knowledge of subject matter on the Academic Performance Of Junior Secondary School Students In Social studies.
- Find out whether teachers Gender affect the Academic Performance Of Junior Secondary School Students In Social studies.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This study is aimed at examining the relationship between teacher‟s quality and student‟s achievements. The literature review is related to the above topic.
Literature review purposely enables the researcher to identify and locate previous observation, opinions and comments made by others which is related to the research area. Literature review helps the researcher to know the present situation of the problem. The literature review in this chapter will be under the following sub themes or topics: such as teaching experience, certification, knowledge of subject matter, teaching methods in classroom.
Teacher Quality and students Academic Achievement: Conceptual Framework
Teacher quality is a reflection of competence (for example, degree, exam scores, certification, knowledge of subject matter and experience).
Academic Achievement refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers.
Variables presumed that teacher quality requirements that have been examined for the relationship to the achievement of the students by educationalist and some researcher include the views of teaching experience, certification, knowledge of subject matter, teaching behaviors in the classroom, mastery in lesson planning and presentation etc.
Teachers Experience and students Academic Achievement
It has been established that in-experienced teachers perform less effectively than the experienced ones. The inexperienced ones are those with less than three years experience.
Rosentholtz, 1986 and Hanushek, 1996 found that fewer than half of the 109 previous studies, the estimated of teacher experience show that a student statistically significant effect on student achievement; but Stevens found that more experience actually had a negative impact and student achievement. Other studies show a stronger positive relationship between teacher experience and student outcomes in scores.
Owolabi (2018) state that government should find all possible means to retain veteran and experienced teachers who are still willing to serve so that they can contribute their wealth of experience to improving the system.
Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain (2001) also, pursue a non parametric investigation of experience and find that experienced effects are concentrated in the first few years as to a somewhere extent their second year tend to perform significantly worse in the classroom.
The relationship between teacher experiences as student‟s achievement receives considerable attention in the empherical literature, with somewhat mixed results. Several researchers said that experience, especially during the first couple of years in the classroom, is positively associated with student achievement in mathematics and reading at the elementary and middle school levels. Several other studies, however, do not detect meaningful differences between more and less experienced teachers (Carr, 2017; Gallagher, 2004).
Murname (1995) suggest that the topical teacher learning have peaks in a teacher‟s first few years. Some statistics also review that well prepared begins teachers can be highly effective. For example studies of 5 years teacher education programme that include bachelor degree in the discipline and matters in education as well as year-long student teaching placement have found graduate to be more confident than graduate of 4 years programme and as effective as more senior teacher (Dentan and Peters 1988).
Really, teaching experience influences student‟s achievements. Teachers‟ experience in teaching plays a very vital role in the achievement of students. Most of the in-experienced teachers become experienced as a result of their years of experience in teaching.
Teachers play a vital role in the development of education. The success of any educational system depends largely on the quality of teachers. “A teacher is a maker of man”; “a teacher is a helper and guide”.
According to Zakir Hussain (1897-1969), the president of India, “they (teachers) are literally the arbiters of a nation‟s destiny. Rabidraneth Tagore (1861-1941), an Indian philosopher and poet says “if there is any profession of paramount importance, I believe it is that of the school master”. A teacher plays his role towards society in two ways:
- Inside the school by preparing students towards being good andeffective citizens and;
- Outside the school by assuming the role of a social worker and agent of social change. However, the teacher‟s role in the school is of vital significance.
The validity of any educational system naturally is dependent upon the quality of the teaching and the availability of competent teachers. It is difficult to assess the quality of a teacher. We can only determine what makes a qualitative teacher. A teacher qualification, the qualities related to professional requirements.
Qualities relating to character and personality.
Qualities relating to human relationships
Qualifications relating to professional education/training.
This chapter described the design, method and procedure employed in the conduct of this research. The population, sample and sampling techniques, data gathering techniques, administration and analysis, reliability and validity as well as pilot study were discussed in the chapter.
In this study a descriptive research design was used. According to Gay (1981) it involves collecting of data in order to test hypothesis or to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study. Descriptive research could be case study, survey study, developmental study or corelational study. In all the above cases, given phenomena or variables are described, as they exist as at the time of the study.
The descriptive design as used in this research it is a co-relational study and this type of study seeks to establish the relationship that exists between two or more variables. Hence the survey tool was used as an instrument for data collection.
Population of the Study
The population for this study consists of 20 junior secondary schools of Degema Local Government Area with a total of 9,938 students and a total number of 75 social studies teachers (RUBE,2012)
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
This chapter dealt with analysis of data and results obtained were presented. Research questions were also analyzed using the descriptive statistics mean, standard deviation and frequency count. The research hypotheses, data were tested using chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test the individual hypothesis.
SUMMARY,CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
It is the hope of this researcher that conclusions, recommendations as well as the suggestions made in this study will be implemented by authorities concerned.
In the course of the study, four objectives were raised, which include the following:
- Determine the relationship between teachers qualification/certification and students Academic Achievement in social studies.
- Establish the relationship between teacher years of teaching experience and students Academic Achievement in social studies.
- Establish the relationship between teachers knowledge of subject matter and students performance in social studies.
- Examine how teachers teaching methods influence student Academic Achievement in social studies in the Primary school in the metropolis.
Four research questions were raised and four research hypotheses formulated and tested at 0.05.Twenty Junior Secondary Schools were selected to represent the sample in the study area. 250 students from JSS2 classes were randomly selected across the sampled schools. On the other hand, all the seventy five (75) social studies teachers were selected from the secondary schools in the metropolis to represent the sample in the population of teachers in Degema Local Government Area. Standardized examination results of JSS2 students were collected from the selected schools‟ examination offices. Forty (40) item questionnaires were administered to teachers and retrieved with the help of research assistants, after few days. The questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation. Data gathered were analyzed at 0.05 level of significance.
The results from the data collected were analyzed, interpreted and discussed, and the following findings were revealed:
(1) Teachers‟ qualification/certificate has no significant relationship with students‟ Academic Achievement
(2) Teachers‟ years of teaching experience has no positive relationship with a students‟ Academic Achievement
(3) Teachers‟ knowledge of subject matter was found to establish a strong relationship with students‟ Academic Achievement.
(4) Teachers‟ use of pedagogical skills has no relationship also with students‟ Academic Achievement in social studies.
The study was aimed at finding out the relationship between teachers quality and Academic Performance Of Junior Secondary School Students In Social studies, Degema Local Government Area. The result of the study indicated that hypotheses 1, 2 and 4 were all accepted and hypothesis 3 was rejected and this led to the conclusion that teacher‟s quality has no significant relationship with student‟s Academic Achievement. And teacher‟s knowledge of subject matter played a significant role in the Academic Achievement of students. From the findings these conclusions were drawn.
(1) social studies teachers are encouraged to further their studies so as to increase their knowledge and experience in their subject field or area of specialization.
(2) social studies teachers should be well committed to their duty
(3) social studies teachers were encourage to use different teaching methods to make their students learn better.
(4) social studies teachers should know their subject matter very well so that they could help their student to learn better.
The National Policy on Education postulated that “No Education could rise above the quality of its teachers”. The student‟s performance depend upon the quality of the teachers. Therefore, poor performance of students in Nigeria was also attributed to lack of quality teachers in our schools. Based on the proceedings conclusion, the following recommendations were made.
(1) Teachers of social studies should be encouraged to go for both long term and short term training to boost their quality in teaching and learning in Junior Secondary Schools. This is because by so doing, their power of knowledge and command of experience would be greatly enhanced or boosted and this serves importance to both the teachers and students.
(2) Government should ensure the adequate recruitment of dedicated, qualified teachers to teach in all Junior Secondary Schools in the study area in particular and the country in general.
(3) Teachers should be encouraged to use different teaching method during teaching.
(4) Teachers should also attend seminars, workshops to keep abreast of new teaching approaches.
(5) Teachers with long years of experience should be encouraged and motivated to stay in teaching profession as the length of service/ experience significantly affects the students‟ performance in social studies.
(6) Teachers‟ Registration Council should introduce tests and examinations for teachers at regular intervals.
(7) That government should find all possible means to retain veteran and experienced teachers who are still willing to serve so that they can contribute their wealth of experience to improving the system.
Conclusively, teachers of social studies were expected to use instructional materials from time to time as the need arises to develop interest in learning of social studies to their students.
- Adeniji, I.A (1999) A path-analytical study of some teacher characteristics and teachers job performance in secondary schools in Ogun State. unpublished Ph.D. thesis, educational management department, University of Ibadan.
- Adewunmi, S.A. (2000) the relationship between supervisory climate and teacherstudent performance in secondary in Oyo State, Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, educational management department, University of Ibadan.
- Aduwa S.E (2004) Dynamising the instructional system: An enquiry for effective childhood education in Nigeria. Nigerian journal curriculum studies, 11 (2), 239245.
- Agbongiasede, E.E (2008) Secondary Education: The base for functional skills and qualitative education in Nigeria in the 21st century. journal of teacher perspective (JOTEP) vol. 2(1) association of Nigerian teachers.
- Aggrarwal, J.C.(2017) Teacher and education in a developing society. New Delhi, Vikas publishing House PVT Ltd.
- Aggrarwal, J.C. (2008) Development and Planning of Modern Education. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House PVT Ltd.
- Akinsolu, A.O. (2010). Teachers and student Academic Achievement in Nigerian Secondary Schools: implications for planning: National Institute for Educational Planning and Administration Nigeria.
- Alamu, J.F Olukosi, J.O. (2010) Simplified Research Methodology: Principles and practiced. Zango Great Glory Publishers.
- Andrews, J.W. Beackmon, CR, & Mackey, J.A. (1980) Preservice performance and the national teacher examinations. Phi Delta Kappan, 61(5), 358-359.