Impact of Tourism Management on Sustainable Tourism Development A Study of Olumo Rock
Objective of the Study
This research work is set to explore on the impact of tourism and management on sustainable tourism development with other objectives as follows:
- How to improve the sustainability of tourist centers (Olumo rock) to be enjoyed by future generations and how its long term survival must not be prejudiced by short-term considerations.
- How the relationship between tourism and environment can be managed so that the environment is sustainable in the long term.
- Managing Olumo rock tourism and development activities so as to give proper importance to the nature and character of the place (Olumo rock) in which it is sited.
- Highlight, tourism and give recognition to it as a positive activity with a potential benefit to the local community.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Tourism sector according to David Diaz Benavides (2001) is probably the only services sector that provides concrete and qualified trading opportunities for all nations, regardless of their level of development. According to him, the sector also provides an uneven distribution of benefits, which is threatening the social, economic and environmental sustainability of tourism in some developing countries (Benavides 2001). Tourism has become a major source of economic development and diversification for many developing countries. Tourism for Nigeria is yet to become a channel of employment creation, income generation and revenue mobilization for a country with over 170 million people. Although, the developed countries account for a higher proportion of global tourism, and many developing countries are beginning to take advantage of the huge opportunities offered by tourism. (Ayeni & Ebohon 2012) Nevertheless, this is only possible among the countries that have all it takes to promote tourism. The huge advantages in tourism can be achieve with the availability of natural, manmade, cultural, and enhancing infrastructure supporting the growth and development of tourism in the country. Most developing countries like Nigeria for example practise monoeconomy, which means the country generate bulk of her foreign exchange from a particular economic product “crude oil”. However, many of these countries are beginning to see the importance of tourism and the needs for economic diversification. Nigeria has always being known as a petroleum exporting country, she is one of the largest producers of petroleum. And the country’s main stay is crude oil. However, the country has decided to join the trial to diversify her economy from the production of crude oil in other to create more employment opportunities and to generate more foreign income. (Ayeni & Ebohon 2012) Nigeria is a rich country when it comes to tourism because, the country is blessed with all it takes to be a tourists’ destination. The country’s tourism potentials range from natural, manmade, and cultural attractions but they lacks management, enhancing and supporting infrastructure around the attractions for easy access and development. However, this area is the business potential in the country now. Many benefits have been set out for local and foreign investors that believe in the industry (Ayeni & Ebohon 2012). Sustainable tourism concept is used to harmonize and reconcile issues of intergenerational equity, the goals of economic growth, environmental protection, and justice. It recognizes the need for fairness between local individuals and groups, and between hosts and guests (Mbaiwa 2005). Africa just like other continents of the world is a location for tourism and travelling. The continent is not left out in the technique of raising revenue through tourism. Africa has continued to improve on tourism like other continents.According to the United Nation World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts, it is stated that international tourist arrivals will experi- 7 ence an increase of 3% to 4% in 2013, this forecast is so much in line with its 2030 long term forecast: +3.8% a year on average between 2010 and 2020.This report is confirmed by the UNWTO Confidence Index. This report was Compiled among over 300 experts worldwide, the Index shows that prospects for 2013 are similar to the evaluation of last year 124 points for 2013 against 122 for 2012. Which in turns implies that by region, prospects for 2013 are much more stronger than that of 2012, for Asia and the Pacific +5% to +6%, followed by Africa +4% to +6%, the Americas +3% to +4%, Europe +2% to +3% and the Middle East 0% to +5%(UNWTO 2013). International tourism, measured by the number of arrivals of foreign tourists in a country, grew by 4%. United Nations World Tourism Organization
CONCEPT OF TOURISM
According to Goeldner & Ritchie (2012), primarily tourism is seen as when people visit a particular place for sightseeing, visiting friends and relatives, taking vacation, and having funs. Although, they might also enjoy their leisure time participating in various activities like sport, talking, sunbathing, taking rides, touring, reading, singing or relaxing and enjoying the environment. Considering the subject further, people participating in a business conference, convention, or any other professional activities will be included in the definition of tourism. If tourism can be called activities, it means tourism is an activity that involved the movement of people from their usual home to another place for leisure or for business and stay there for at least twenty-four hours.It is obvious that this people use one form of transportation or the other, it could be by air, water or land. It could be by car, motor coach, train, taxi, bicycle, or motorbike, which ever means implies they are taking trip which mean they are engaging in tourism. Achieving a comprehensive description of tourism, the various group that participated to the tourism industry should be considered and mansion because their perspectives are important in deriving comprehensive definition. (Goeldner & Ritchie 2012)
The researcher used descriptive research survey design in building up this project work the choice of this research design was considered appropriate because of its advantages of identifying attributes of a large population from a group of individuals. The design was suitable for the study as the study sought to evaluate the impact of tourism management on sustainable tourism development
Sources of data collection
Data were collected from two main sources namely:
(i)Primary source and
These are materials of statistical investigation which were collected by the research for a particular purpose. They can be obtained through a survey, observation questionnaire or as experiment; the researcher has adopted the questionnaire method for this study.
These are data from textbook Journal handset etc. they arise as byproducts of the same other purposes. Example administration, various other unpublished works and write ups were also used.
Population of the study
Population of a study is a group of persons or aggregate items, things the researcher is interested in getting information for the study impact of tourism management on sustainable tourism development. 200 staff of Nigeria tourism Development board was selected randomly by the researcher as the population of the study.
PRESENTATION ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Efforts will be made at this stage to present, analyze and interpret the data collected during the field survey. This presentation will be based on the responses from the completed questionnaires. The result of this exercise will be summarized in tabular forms for easy references and analysis. It will also show answers to questions relating to the research questions for this research study. The researcher employed simple percentage in the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the impact of tourism management on sustainable tourism development.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of tourism management and development in Nigeria
Nigeria would be a better country if we do not solely depend on the oil sector as the mainstay and the largest contributor to the Total government revenue and GDP. Oil will continue to be important as a source of revenue, but we need to drive the economy away from where we have 70 per cent of revenue in oil and 30 per cent from other sources. “We should drive it to where a third of our revenues come from oil and twothirds from the non-oil sector. That should be the vision for this economy. That is when we can see and say that we are capitalizing on our diversified base. The horizon is clear to see: Shale oil has come to stay and will keep crude price low. In single source economies like Nigeria, dependent on just one commodity for her foreign exchange, the shortage of forex will create inflation and economic hardship for the average citizen. To cushion these harsh economic storms, Nigeria can develop and invest in tourism, of which she has an upper hand. Tourism is one of the key sectors that provide unrivalled opportunities for Nigeria’s accelerated growth. It shares linkage with virtually all the sectors of the economy with proven multiplier effect on the economy. It remains Nigeria’s surest most strategic and competitive way to secure her rapid industrialization and future. It creates employment more than any other sector of the economy, earns foreign exchange.
From the study, it can be deduced that the country “Nigeria” just like other developing countries have huge of tourism potentials which are calling for exploration. Nigeria tourism sector needs help and support to be a beneficial of the huge opportunities surrounding the sector globally. The analysis above has shown that the country’s economy can be diversified and tourism is seen as the best alternative. However, the sector needs serious development for these dreams to come through. Although, the government has realised the huge benefits attached to development of tourism in a country and strategic plans has been set aside for tourism development to become a reality in the country. Besides this, the private individuals and organizations’ support are also very important in this regards. And also, all tourism firm or organizations should endeavour to work hand in hand for the development of tourism industry from their various areas in the sector. The country’s natural and human resources should be combined and used wisely in transforming the tourism industry into employment creation and inflow of foreign exchange. Despite the slowness in the country’s tourism industry, some bit of progressive work can still be perceived in the industry in some part of the country. It was revealed in the finding that some companies’ GDP has been boosted by tourism through the influence of funds from abroad, that it also promotes foreign investment and creates job opportunities for residents, and some states in the country has been greatly influenced and transformed by tourism. There is future for Nigeria tourism industry.
Nigeria has rich tourism potentials capable of attracting tourists to the country. Today, the political situation which is full of crisis, and the prevailing ethnic differences in Nigeria has hampered the rate of tourists inflow to Nigeria. It is on this note that the following are recommended:
- Private investors should be encouraged to take up the responsibility of the development of the site so it can reach a globally accepted ecotourism site but this should be subject to the community opinions and suggestions through adequate consultations and engagement. This is important as lack of community acceptance can have a negative effect on the development.
- The government should ensure a conducive atmosphere that would encourage and guarantee tourist safety in Nigeria.
Security, electricity, transportation, communication and other supporting infrastructure are key factors that attract tourists to a country. If they are in a comatose, visitors will search for alternative destinations. Therefore, it is pertinent to provide these supporting infrastructures.
- Ayeni, D. A. &Ebohon, O. J.2012.Exploring sustainable tourism in Nigeria for development growth: Europe
- Badagry Coconut Beach.Tourism for Development Initiative 2013. Accessed 21.09.2014 http://tourism.powef.org/tourist_destinations_lagos
- Beech, John & Chadwick, Simon 2006: The business of tourism management. Pearson: England
- Benavides, D.D. 2001. The viability and sustainability of international tourism in developing countries; Symposium on tourism services 22-23 February 2001 world trade organisations: Geneva.
- Cooper, C. Fletcher, J. Fyall, A. Gilbert, D. &Wanhill, S. 2005: Tourism Principles and Practice. 3rd edition. Pearson Education Limited: England