Mass Communication Project Topics

Impact of Women in Advertising (a Case Study of Delta Soap)

Impact of Women in Advertising (a Case Study of Delta Soap)

Impact of Women in Advertising (a Case Study of Delta Soap)



The objectives of the study are;

  1. To examine the effect of the use of female model on television advertisement
  2. To know audience perception of the use of female model in Delta Soap television advertisement
  3. To know the extent to which female models in advertisement can influence consumers to make buying decisions




“Advertising presents the most persuasive selling message to the right prospects for a product or service at the least possible cost.” – The UK Institute of Practitioners in Advertising (adapted from Dogudje 2009). “Advertise or die” were the words of Kankarofi, the APCON Registrar in a paper he recently presented on Options for Corporate Survival: a seminar organized in Lagos by the NigeriaSouth Africa Chamber of Commerce. He emphasized on the need for corporate/business organizations to sufficiently appreciate the place of advertisement in the survival of their business. In the words of Kaufman (1980:3), “advertising is not chemistry, with rules and laws that, if followed with reasonable precision, will lead to predictable results every time. Advertising is not a panacea that can restore a poor product or rejuvenate a declining market; it is not a substitute for sound business judgment nor is advertising merely the words and pictures that appear in newspapers and magazines, on billboards and on television screens. These are the means or the media that advertising uses to communicate its information about products, services, and ideas to people: information designed to persuade them make buying or action decisions. Advertising is the art and business of persuasive communication”. Nwaizugbo (2004:181) defines advertising as a process of presenting a product or idea to a person or group of persons, some openly sponsored message (oral or visual) about a product or seller. This message which is being presented is known as advertising. Jefkins (1985:3) submitted that advertising is the means by which we make known what we have to sell or what we want to buy. In other words, the British Code of Advertising Practice (as adapted from Dogudge, Aug. 2009 APCON Seminar), defines advertising as a paid-for communication addressed to the public or a section of it, the purpose of which is to influence the opinions or behavior of those to whom it is addressed. Whereas, Kotler & Armstrong (2007:426) see advertising as any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. To Anyacho (2007:6), advertising is a form of communication through the media about products, services, ideas paid for by an identified sponsor. Wright, Winter & Zeigler (1983:8) see advertising as a powerful communication force and a vital marketing tool, helping to sell goods, services, images and ideas (or ideals) through channels of information and persuasion. By this definition, it’s noteworthy that advertising never sells products but helps to sell products. Above all, the American Marketing Association (AMA) recommends this definition:- Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, and services by an identified sponsor. In this definition, the following phrases were further explained.

Paid Form: When products or services are mentioned favorably in the media, the item appears because it is presumed to provide information or entertainment for the audience. This is called publicity, and no payment is made by the benefited organization. Advertising on the other hand is published or broadcast because the advertiser has purchased time or space to tell the story of a certain product or service.

Non-personal: Personal selling takes place when a personal face-to-face presentation is made. Although advertising complements or substitutes for personal selling, it is done in a non-personal manner through intermediaries or the media.

Ideas, Goods and Services: From this phrase, it’s obvious that advertising is not all about promotion of tangible goods as other service providing organizations such as banks, Insurance companies, Airlines etc also advertise as aggressively as do other manufacturers of tangible goods.

An Identified Sponsor: This phrase states that advertising must disclose or identify the source of opinions and ideas it presents.




Research design

The researcher used descriptive research survey design in building up this project work the choice of this research design was considered appropriate because of its advantages of identifying attributes of a large population from a group of individuals. The design was suitable for the study as the study sought to impact of women in advertising (a case study of Delta soap)

Sources of data collection

Data were collected from two main sources namely:

(i)Primary source and

(ii)Secondary source

Primary source:

These are materials of statistical investigation which were collected by the research for a particular purpose. They can be obtained through a survey, observation questionnaire or as experiment; the researcher has adopted the questionnaire method for this study.

Secondary source:

These are data from textbook Journal handset etc. they arise as byproducts of the same other purposes. Example administration, various other unpublished works and write ups were also used.

Population of the study

Population of a study is a group of persons or aggregate items, things the researcher is interested in getting information on impact of women in advertising. 200 staff of Delta soap in Lagos state was selected randomly by the researcher as the population of the study.




Efforts will be made at this stage to present, analyze and interpret the data collected during the field survey.  This presentation will be based on the responses from the completed questionnaires. The result of this exercise will be summarized in tabular forms for easy references and analysis. It will also show answers to questions relating to the research questions for this research study. The researcher employed simple percentage in the analysis.


The data collected from the respondents were analyzed in tabular form with simple percentage for easy understanding.

A total of 133(one hundred and thirty three) questionnaires were distributed and 133 questionnaires were returned.




It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was on impact of women in advertising a case study of Delta soap. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of women in advertising a case study of Delta soap


This study was on impact of women in advertising a case study of Delta soap. Three objectives were raised which included: To examine the effect of the use of female model on television advertisement, to know audience perception of the use of female model in Delta Soap television advertisement and to know the extent to which female models in advertisement can influence consumers to make buying decisions. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Delta soap, Lagos state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made HRMs, sale reps, marketers and junior staffs were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


It is due to the diversification of women’s roles in our society. On one hand, some gender stereotypes have dissipated (for instance, woman does not appear just in the kitchen with her husband and her children, and now she is more educated, fashionable and independent than ever). On the other hand, advertisers do not use women as sexual object to catch the eyes of male viewers as much as they used to do it. Nevertheless, there are still many stereotypes, which degrade women’s dignity, although advertisers do not use them as much as decades ago. There is not so common to see women with perfect bodies in actual advertisements. The new woman’s beauty is closer to reality. If we compare historical ads to actual one’s, we see that 77% of historical commercials showed women with perfect bodies in the past. Nowadays, girls with perfect bodies appear in 45% of announcements. Although advertisers still use actresses and professional top models to represent an ideal beauty, actual advertising shows more real women. It happens the same with the image of women as aesthetic resort.


it is important to raise awareness about women’s barriers and to promote an education based on gender equality. In this way, individuals will be provided with the knowledge and the tools to identify sexist manifestations, no matter how subtle, subliminal or implied they may be. Like Marie Curie once said: “you cannot hope to build a better world without improving the individuals” (Curie 1923: 168). So only once all men and women unite to speak out for women’s rights, the advertising world will have no chances to introduce denigrating images anymore


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