Psychology Project Topics

Influence of Family Background on the Educational Development of Secondary School Students in Egor L.G.A. Of Edo StateInfluence of Family Background on the Educational Development of Secondary School Students in Egor L.G.A. Of Edo State

Influence of Family Background on the Educational Development of Secondary School Students in Egor L.G.A. Of Edo State

Influence of Family Background on the Educational Development of Secondary School Students in Egor L.G.A. Of Edo State


Purpose of the Study

There is no gain for any country whose educational planners and policy makers stands and watch the falling standard and steady decline of education at a given rate. They must identify the causes for such decline with a view of proffering solution to them.

This research work is set to accomplish the following objectives;

  1. To investigate into the effect of family background on the educational performance of students’.
  2. To find out if social-economic status of parents influence their students’ academic performance in secondary school.
  3. To find out whether educational attainment of parent affect their students’ academic performance in secondary school.
  4. To find out the influence of family size on educational upbringing of secondary school students.




This chapter is concerned with the review of related literature on the study. This review shall be presented under theoretical conceptual frame work, empirical studies and summary.

Theoretical Framework

The review is organized under the following headings and sections

Orhungur (1990) asserts that the socio-economic status of the family determine the type of education the child will receive from the parents and level of sophistication the child attains in habits, attitudes, and values. High income or prestige families tend to send their children to high prestige schools.

He further explained that  “ a low income family with plenty of feeding problems may produce children whose physical and mental development pose real challenges to the schools effort at optimum development of the child” Commenting on this Coleman(1999) said that the last single predictor of children’s performance in school is the child’s family standard. This assertion according to Coleman (2000), it is the families that first exposed the child to educational activities such as videos, books and many others that help educate the child.

However, some researchers have classified parents’ socio-economic status into different categories. According to Toullators (1998) named as high, middle and low levels socio-economic statuses. He established that, children whose parents are well place in the society scored substantially higher in secondary school than those from the lower socio-economic group. Agreeing with this classification, Hurlock (2003 page 32) also establish that children of the higher socio-economic group tend to be creative than those of the lower groups. The former, for the most part are brought up under democratic training methods, while the later are far more likely to experience authoritarian training.

Sexton (1998) in his own study said that children from poor homes are handicapped some time by the high rate of sickness and poor rate of attendance at school. He went further to say that, the type and native of home environment into environment in turn affect the child academic performance.

A high socio-economic environment according to Bankies (1997) did to encourage a favorable response to school activities which eventually lead to good academic performance. This according to him was possible since there were enough funds to help provide the necessary educational incentives. He then concluded that, poverty could exert great influence on school performances, through malnutrition and other poor condition that could influence the child’s ability to learn. The underfeeding of the child as a result of family income can affect performance in school subjects Mayard and Bankies (1998). He went ahead saying that, home condition such as noise, poor accommodation, poor lighting for reading and lack of educational materials adversely affect the child’s performance.

Mugrave (2002) held that high income enabled parents to give the children the secondary school materials that money could buy. He was of the opinion that a child who lived in pleasant surroundings and was provided with educational toys, was sent to private school that have a high staffing ratio, could benefit from the resources the parents posses.

According to Krass and Panache (2001) high station parent encourage their children to receive education more frequently than do lower status parents, moreover, parents who are well to do, or are economically sound can afford to provide effective and proper education for their children. This they can do by sending their children to good schools with qualified teachers and enough teaching aids.

Copel (2003) observed that, generally, children’s academic performance relates to their parents socio-economic status is measured informs of income, occupation and household possession.

Most children as stated by Mayard (1998), whose parents are financially handicapped, can develop psychologically neurosis such as anxiety and stress which can lead to frustration and consequently affect their children in their performance in secondary school.





This chapter deals with the research design, area of study, population, sample and samplings instrumentation, validation of instruments, method of data collection as well as method data analysis.

Research Design

The research design adopted for this study was the survey method. According to Kerhinger in Agbe (1999) defines a research design as the planed structure and strategy of investigating conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and control of variances are the basic tasks of a research design.

Survey design required that data are typically collected through questionnaires, interview or observation of a particular time, from a sample for the purpose of describing the population represented by the sample of that particular point in time.

Thus, the researcher used the survey design to ascertain whether the selected variables have any significant relationship on educational performance on students. By using this design, the researcher will sample from the population that can allow inferences from generalization to the total population.




This chapter is discussed under the following sub-headings: Data presentation, Analysis, interpretation and finally discussion of findings

Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

The data collected and the analysis are presented in tabular form using chi- square (x2) students’ t-test and simple percentages.



5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the entire project work while conclusions are drawn. In relation to the present findings, in this chapter useful recommendations are also made.

5.2 Summary

A study of influence of family background and educational development of students in five secondary schools. In Egor L.G.A. Of Edo State. As related to its implication for psychological counseling was carried out by the researcher. The analysis was presented and discussed while some important observations as evident from the tables and statistically computed values are of interest in explaining the influence of family background of students. The study generally observed that home background has a significant influence on the academic performance of the child. The study revealed that differences still exist in the performance between the children of wealthy parents and vice versa. The socio-economic status of parents provide enabling environment for conducive learning. In other words, socio-economic status of parents necessitates the assistance provided to the children as well as the basic needs of the children and the facilities available for learning. All these have great influence on the academic performance of the students in school.

Other factors or variables such as size of the family, home situation have statistically been proven that academic performance of students in school is highly dependent on them.


The investigation of family background as it affects academic performance of students was carried out though limited by several factors such as time constraint for field works, unavailability of money to cover the cost. It is based on this backdrop, therefore, that further research is required. Some of which have been suggested below:

  1. A comparative study of family background in rural areas and that of urban areas as it affects academic performance of the students, be carried out with larger sample size.
  2. A study of the perceptions of parents of different home background as related to educational development be undertaken to ascertain the level of failing standard of education.


From the study carried out and presented above these observations were made from which conclusions were derived. Differences in academic performance of children are a function of differences in educational background of the parents. Due to inadequate resources, children are not provided with academic needs that could facilitate conducive learning because of poor socio-economic status of some parents. This has some effects on student’s performance. Based on the above observations the following conclusions were reached:

  1. There exists a difference between the academic performance of students from educated and non-educated parents.
  2. The socio-economic status (wealth) of parents influence the academic performance of the children
  3. Family size and home situation are determining factors for children development and as such they affect the academic performance of the students also.

Suggestion for Further Study

The following suggestions have been made:

  1. parents should shun the temptation of giving all their time to their jobs and other activities to the detriment of their children. They should rather put attention to their children’s welfare and academic progress to encourage them to perform better in school.
  2. To policy makers, findings of researches on educational development are able to achieve desired goals. More so, efforts be made to educate our populace on the relevance of educating their children so as to improve on the number as well as performance of their children.
  3. School administrators should encourage the establishment of Parent’s Teachers association (PTA), as a forum for both parents’ and Teachers to discuss the academic progress of their children. Another forum should also be created for parents, students and teachers to further enhance interactions.


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