Influence of Guidance and Counselling on Students Discipline in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Keffi, Nasarawa State
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Objectives of the study are;
- To determine the extent to which provision of guidance and counselling materials influences students’ counselling in Keffi, Nasawara state
- To establish the extent to which teacher-counsellors’ exposure to training influences students’ discipline.
- To determine the influence of training of peer counselling on students’ discipline.
- To establish the extent to which guest speakers on guidance and counselling influences students’ discipline.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of education, guidance and counselling
In his article, Njagi (2007), quotes a teacher, Melania who describes education as a process. She is quoted as saying education “is a system of passing on and acquiring knowledge, experience, values and skills. It is a lifelong process”. In distinguishing between African indigenous education system and the modern European system she says that African indigenous education was informal but integrated and comprehensive. Its concern was character formation and dissemination of holistic values, while the modern education system is about memory and passing examinations with less emphasis for character and unique value formation. Collins (2002) says that guidance and counselling is important because it provides an insight on working knowledge, skills and attitudes. It is necessary to assist young people to be disciplined and be able to deal with challenges and realities they face in their ever changing environment, understand themselves, their academic social and physical environment, realize their potentials, as well as identify opportunities in a world where chances for further training, employment and advancement continue to dwindle. Learners are counselled to alter any maladjusted behaviour. Since most citizens are involved in education process directly or indirectly, the impact of guidance and counselling is real to them.
Historical development and the need for guidance and counselling
By the end of the 19th century guidance and counselling gathered momentum in Europe and United States of America. Systematic work was done by George Merrill in 1885 at California University. Other contributors to this were Godwin (1911), Weaver (1912) and Davis (1913), (Internet source). In Britain counselling of various kinds came to be offered within the school and college systems in the 1920’s as career guidance for young people to adjust to the demands of college life. Witmer (1990) says that African traditions and cultures guided youth in social roles, values, belief system, sex, regimental roles and skills they would need to enhance their culture. As society is dynamic, there are rapid social and economic changes that affect the students in our schools. The adolescents in schools find it difficult to cope with the challenges that come due to their physical, psychological and emotional changes coupled with the rapid changes in the society. It is often difficult for them to make decisions since the traditional setting is no longer in place. According to Muithya (1996), in the traditional African society, character formation was achieved through intense formal and informal programme of guidance and counselling. Makinde (1984) notes that guidance and counselling has been an essential part of every society and each society had its own sources of wisdom which controlled and regulated social interactions. He states that in African society’s provision of guidance and counselling was effected through identified people to whom members could turn to when necessary. The role of guidance and counselling in the administration and management of student discipline in Kenya has been recognized by the various government policy documents since independence. The “Report of the National Committee on Educational Objectives and Policies of 1976” recommended that guidance and counselling be taught using subjects like Religious Education, Social Education and Ethics to enable the school promote the growth of self-discipline among students (Republic of Kenya, 1976). Despite this recommendation, the use of guidance and counselling services was still wanting in helping curb indiscipline in schools, which was increasing. Infractions that require guidance and counselling include assault, arson, fighting, and theft, and vandalism, destruction of school stores, administration blocks, libraries, harassment, riots and rape and loss of lives. In 1980, recorded cases of schools that experienced these cases of indiscipline were 22 (0.9%). This increased to 187 (7.2%) in 1990 (Simatwa, 2007). These cases have continued to increase unabated to the extent that, in 2001 the Ministry of Education introduced guidelines on Safety in schools. Thus, in 1998, 26 girls at Bombolulu Girls Secondary School were burnt to death; in 1999, 17 girls at st. Kizito Secondary School were killed and 70 raped; at Nyeri Boys High School, four prefects were burnt to death in their dormitory; and in 2001, 67 boys at Kyanguli High School were burnt to death by their colleagues (East African Standard Team, 23rd April, 2001). Guidance and counselling has been conceptualized as a programme of activities which has provided us with the gateway out of the existing numerous problems in our present age of complex scientific and technological development (Okobiah and Okorodudu 2004). The UNESCO module on guidance and counselling (2000a) also posited that Guidance is a programme of services to individuals based on their needs and the influence of environmental factors. Guidance and counselling is a professional field which has a broad range of activities, programmes and services geared toward assisting individuals to understand themselves, their problems, their school environment and their world and also to develop adequate capacity for making wise choices and decisions. There is agreement among experts that there are three major components of guidance and counselling. These are educational guidance, vocational guidance and personal social guidance (UNESCO module 2000a). Under these three major areas, there are several guidance and counselling services such as appraisal, information, placement, orientation, evaluation, referral, and follow-up (Denga 2001) Each of these major components of guidance and counselling alone with their services address students’ needs, challenges and problems. The goal of guidance and counselling services is to enable each learner in institutions of learning to derive optimal educational benefits so as to actualize his/her potentialities. Thus, the highlights of the National Policy on Education (1998) states “in view of the apparent ignorance of many young people about career prospects and in view of personality adjustments among school children, career officers and counsellors will be appointed in postprimary institutions and tertiary levels”. Unfortunately the practice of these services in our institutions of learning is nothing to write home about. The programme is not encouraging at the secondary school level and even at the university level. Anwana (1989) and Abiri (1996) argued that if the society is not to be plaque by a band/group of disgruntled, frustrated and unrealistic individuals, it is desirable that adequate guidance and counselling and career information be provided, to enable the school and society arrive at a realistic vocational choice for their children/wards with due realization of their potentialities. Smith (2006) proposed and outlined ten stages of strength-based counselling to illustrate how the approach may be implemented. The ten stages are: (a) Creating the therapeutic alliance; (b) Identifying strengths; (c) Assessing presenting problems; (d) Encouraging and instilling hope; (e) Framing solutions; (f) Building strength and competence; (g) Empowering; (h) Changing; (i) Building resilience; and (j) Evaluating and terminating. Following the stages, the approach will result into a disciplined group of youths with a focus on the strengths that they have to achieve specific life goals. It will lead to a clear consideration of how problems are to rated and the value to asses and determine the level of urgency in every obstacle encountered. Without a clear focus on the depth of the existing problems many youths may not be able to articulately establish solutions to the many challenges facing them. For empowering students to have hope in life and confidence in them they should be enabled to solve life challenging issues by themselves and have change in the way they react to occurring problems. In the process their discipline standards will be well improved, thus creating a sense of responsibility to deal with issues in life. In overall speaking, providing responsive service and designing guidance activities is vital.
The researcher used descriptive research survey design in building up this project work the choice of this research design was considered appropriate because of its advantages of identifying attributes of a large population from a group of individuals. The design was suitable for the study as the study sought influence of guidance and counselling on student’s discipline in public and private secondary schools in Keffi, Nasarawa state.
Sources of data collection
Data were collected from two main sources namely:
(i)Primary source and
These are materials of statistical investigation which were collected by the research for a particular purpose. They can be obtained through a survey, observation questionnaire or as experiment; the researcher has adopted the questionnaire method for this study.
These are data from textbook Journal handset etc. they arise as byproducts of the same other purposes. Example administration, various other unpublished works and write ups were also used.
Population of the study
Population of a study is a group of persons or aggregate items, things the researcher is interested in getting information influence of guidance and counselling on student’s discipline in public and private secondary schools in Keffi, Nasarawa state. 200 staff of selected secondary school in Keffi, Nasarawa state was selected randomly by the researcher as the population of the study.
PRESENTATION ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Efforts will be made at this stage to present, analyze and interpret the data collected during the field survey. This presentation will be based on the responses from the completed questionnaires. The result of this exercise will be summarized in tabular forms for easy references and analysis. It will also show answers to questions relating to the research questions for this research study. The researcher employed simple percentage in the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain influence of guidance and counselling on student’s discipline in public and private schools in Keffi, Nasarawa state. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing guidance and counselling on student’s discipline in public and private schools in Keffi, Nasarawa state
This study was on influence of guidance and counselling on student’s discipline in public and private schools in Keffi, Nasarawa state. Four objectives were raised which included: To determine the extent to which provision of guidance and counselling materials influences students’ counselling in Keffi, Nasawara state, to establish the extent to which teacher-counsellors’ exposure to training influences students’ discipline, to determine the influence of training of peer counselling on students’ discipline, to establish the extent to which guest speakers on guidance and counselling influences students’ discipline. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary school in Keffi, Nasarawa state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals ad, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
The study concludes that guidance and counselling is important in secondary schools and was offered in the schools. Guidance and counselling services offered were educational guidance, career guidance and psychological and social guidance. Through guidance and counselling comprehensive advice on career / courses is given to students. There are less personal problems among the students in the school and students were well disciplined with improved academic performance as a result of guidance and counselling. The student inventory, bulletins on different topics, handbooks for different educational opportunities, books on social psychology, psychology magazines was available. Main administrative roles of a Principal in delivering guidance and counselling services in the school are facilitating the workshop of the H.O.D, budget for the department during school budget, appoint and motivate teacher counsellors and providing necessary facilities and resources for the guidance and counselling services. Lack of cooperation from administration, students’ unwilling to discuss their problems are as a serious challenge and heavy teaching load for the teacher counsellor seam a serious challenge. Main issues hindering guidance and counselling were lack of resources in the school, lack of privacy since there were no guidance and counselling offices. They lacked funds to sponsor the guest speakers and attend seminars. The students benefited from guidance and counselling services especially in areas of learning, relationships and problem solving and discipline observance. Students indicated that they preferred to go for counselling to the peer counsellor
The researcher recommends the following;
- The principals in secondary schools to put in place guidance and counselling services and provide an office where privacy is made a priority. This will encourage more students to visit the office.
- Guidance and counselling teachers should be well trained on how to carry out their duties by being sent to attend many seminars and workshops to improve on their skills.
- For adequate provision of guidance and counselling materials as well as application of peer counselling, there ought to be proper budgeting for the same in terms of finances and time respectively.
- There is need to invite guest speakers who will provide the counselling services to the students in areas of concern.
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