Influence of Parental Care on Preschools Learning Outcome in Nsukka Local Government
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to critically examine the parental care and pupils learning outcomes in education. The specific objectives include the following:
- To examine the impact of parents in early childhood preschool pupils’ learning outcomes.
- To investigate if the socio-demographic characteristics of the parents have an impact on preschool pupils’ learning outcomes.
- To examine the factors affecting parental involvement in early childhood education.
- To recommend measures to increase the rate and involvement of parents in preschool pupils’ learning outcomes.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Various definitions of parental involvement have been proposed. Reynolds and Clements (2005) defined parental involvement as parental behaviour with, or on behalf of children, at home or at school. It is the expectations that parents hold for children‟s future. For an elaborate understanding, Ho and Willms (1996) define parental involvement through four constructs – home discussion, home supervision, school communication and school participation. Dimock, O‟Donoghue, and Robb (1996) proposed a range of dimensions that include: school choice (that is, parents select the education institutions and experiences for their children); involvement in school governance and decision-making (parents participate in formal school structures). They also suggest involvement in teaching and learning activities in the classroom and at home (parents volunteer in the classroom, converse with teachers outside of formal meetings, help with homework and discuss school-related issues with children). Finally they propose communication between home and school (parents contact the school and receive communications from the school) Gray and Smart (2008) state that, parents are their children‟s best advocates. Parents know their children better than anyone else. That is why parents are so important when a child needs specific education. Engaging families in the education of their children at home and at school is increasingly viewed as an important means to support better learning outcomes for children. When schools and families work toge ther, children have higher achievement in school and stay in school longer (Henderson and Mapp, 2002). Although there has been considerable research on how parents influence children‟s development, less is known about the specific ways in which parents socialise their children in terms of school-related behaviours. While extensive research indicates that there are important links between parenting and children‟s academic and behavioural competence at school, there is less research on academic socialisation, which is conceptualised as the variety of parental beliefs and behaviours that influence children‟s school-related development (Taylor, Clayton, and Rowley, 2004). A study conducted by Mahoney and Wiggers (2007) indicates that, there are at least 3 major reasons why parents are mandated to play a more active role in the developmental services their children receive. First, is the federal legislation authorizing early intervention services (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004). The second reason is related to opportunities parents have to influence their children‟s learning and development, particularly when compared with preschool and related educational service professionals. The third and most important reason involves the potential of parents improving child success in early intervention programmes. This effect is accentuated by the fact that most parents are typically a constant presence in their children‟s lives throughout the early childhood years. Taylor et al., (2004), highlight that a greater appreciation of the beliefs that underlie parents‟ decisions about becoming involved in their children‟s education is needed. They further contend that, the way in which parents feel about schools and the emotional connections that they have to school may influence the kinds of attitudes to school and learning that their children assume. However, Boethel (2003) indicates that variation in levels of parental involvement in children‟s learning at home and at school is strongly influenced by family socio-economic status (SES). He states that, parents in families with lower SES often have fewer years of education and, possibly, have had more negative experiences with schools. Parents‟ communication with schools and parental involvement are also influenced by school characteristics (Feuerstein, 2001).Research indicates that parent participation leads to a host of positive outcomes for children, including greater generalisation and maintenance of treatment gains (Koegel, Leibold, and Ryan (199 9). It also fosters greater continuity in intervention programs, higher levels of parent satisfaction and more effective strategies for resolving problems in schools (Newmann and Wehlage, 1995). According to theories of social capital, parental school involvement increases parents‟ access to social networks and information (Coleman, 1988, 1991; Lareau, 1987; Lareau, and Horvat, 1999). Social capital is represented by parental contact and involvement in the organisational and social aspects of the life of the school (Bailey and Wolery, 1989). Spann, Kohler and Soenksen (2003) indicate that parent participation leads to a multitude of positive outcomes for children. Along with these research findings, Spann, Kohler and Soenksen (2003) make multiple recommendations for how schools can develop partnerships with families. These include engaging in quality communication, inviting parents to participate in school activities, soliciting parents‟ input on decisions about their child‟s education, and empowering parents to take action that addresses their own needs.
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried to examine the Influence of parental care on pre schools learning outcome in Nsukka local government. Selected primary schools in Nsukka forms the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain Influence of parental care on pre schools learning outcome in Nsukka local government.. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges oof parental care on pre schools learning outcome
This study was on Influence of parental care on pre schools learning outcome in Nsukka local government. Four objectives were raised which included; To examine the impact of parents in early childhood preschool pupils’ learning outcomes, to investigate if the socio-demographic characteristics of the parents have an impact on preschool pupils’ learning outcomes, to examine the factors affecting parental involvement in early childhood education and to recommend measures to increase the rate and involvement of parents in preschool pupils’ learning outcomes. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from selected in primary schools in Nsukka, Enugu state. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).
Basing on the above findings, it can be concluded that: First, the level of parental involvement is higher in private primary schools than urban public primary schools. However, in rural school there was poor parental involvement, poor parental commitment and poor teacher-parent relationship which impacted greatly of children school performance. The level of commitment of parents in rural school was affected by poverty, literacy level, distance from schools and attitudes. In private primary schools the increased parental involvement was attributed to the high cost of education in private schools, literacy level of parents, and their socio-economic status. It was apparent that parents from private schools were keen in monitoring the value for their money and the outcomes of learning for their children. Secondly, private schools have more strategies of engaging parents as compared to rural and urban primary schools. Strategies used in private schools include computers and information technology, which was deemed a challenge in rural schools due to lack of development. Rural schools had no electricity and all of them had no computers. No teacher had ever shared their private cell phone number with parents for whatever reason. There was recognizable communication breakdown between the schools and the parents, which impacted on children’s learning outcomes.
The child is so to speak sandwiched between the parents at home and the teachers in the school and all are involved in a complex of relationship. The teacher must always remember that the child brings his parents to school with him, in the sense that their teaching is always present in his mind and conscience. There is therefore, likely to be conflict between the teaching of the home and the school and the effects of this can be the root of a child’s problem, and a cause of his difficulties. The teacher cannot avoid his position as a parent figure or substitute (in-loco-parents). One important thing which teachers should also know is that they should be sensitized of their close relationship with pupils for it immensely assists learners to gain confidence and well adjusted.
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