Internet of Things and Its Challenges for Usability in Nigeria
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to reveal the usability challenges of IoT in a developing country like Nigeria.
- to ascertain the challenges facing internet usability in Nigeria
- to find out what internet of a thing is all about
- to find out the opportunities of internet of a thing in Nigeria
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The concept of Internet of Things (IOT)
The phrase “Internet of Things” consists of three words; Internet, of, and things. In their efforts to clarify the reality of ‘IoT’, researchers deployed different scenarios. While some approached IoT as a whole phrase, others discussed its words separately. Most researchers agreed that the term “Internet of Things” was coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999. Ashton himself wrote: “I could be wrong, but I’m fairly sure the phrase ‘Internet of Things’ started life as the title of a presentation I made at Procter & Gamble (P&G) in 1999”2 . The coming point attempts to cite examples of the IoT’s definitions in recent literature. The Internet in the term of “Internet of Things”, can either be seen as a metaphor- as the web used today, things will connect to each other, use services, produce data, etc. or in a stricter sense, IoT suggest that an IP protocol stack are going to be used by smart things- or by proxies, i.e. their preventatives on the network3 . Rolf and Romana described the IoT as “an emerging global Internet-based information architecture facilitating the exchange of goods and services.”4 Having recognized that the term IoT is interpreted differently by experts and interested stakeholders, Adam Thierer states that IoT “is a term for when everyday ordinary objects are connected to the Internet” via microchips and sensors and “the point in time when more ‘things or objects’ are connected to the Internet than people.”5 Delving into the literature let one to say that internet of things is a term used to describe the technologies (RFID, sensors, wireless, wires, etc.) that create connection between things/objects, people and environment. Other terms used interchangeably with IoT include, inter alia, Internet of Anything (IoA), Internet of people (IoP), Internet of data (IoD) and Internet of everything (IoE)6 The authors went on to suggest the term IoE as a projected vision of what is possible as the IoT grows to accommodate a growing number of things. The above terms indicates that IoT constitutes of technological and non-technological (people, things, etc.) aspects. Given the above definitions, the present authors argue that the Internet of Things represents a living concept of how today’s technology increasingly connects to each other as well as to the human. They would entirely define the new relationship of human and technology and will further bring about new opportunities and challenges to human life.
In this chapter, we described the research procedure for this study. A research methodology is a research process adopted or employed to systematically and scientifically present the results of a study to the research audience viz. a vis, the study beneficiaries.
Research designs are perceived to be an overall strategy adopted by the researcher whereby different components of the study are integrated in a logical manner to effectively address a research problem. In this study, the researcher employed the survey research design. This is due to the nature of the study whereby the opinion and views of people are sampled. According to Singleton & Straits, (2009), Survey research can use quantitative research strategies (e.g., using questionnaires with numerically rated items), qualitative research strategies (e.g., using open-ended questions), or both strategies (i.e., mixed methods). As it is often used to describe and explore human behaviour, surveys are therefore frequently used in social and psychological research.
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
According to Udoyen (2019), a study population is a group of elements or individuals as the case may be, who share similar characteristics. These similar features can include location, gender, age, sex or specific interest. The emphasis on study population is that it constitutes of individuals or elements that are homogeneous in description.
This study was carried to examine internet of things and its challenges for usability in Nigeria. Ministry of technology forms the population of the study.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter presents the analysis of data derived through the questionnaire and key informant interview administered on the respondents in the study area. The analysis and interpretation were derived from the findings of the study. The data analysis depicts the simple frequency and percentage of the respondents as well as interpretation of the information gathered. A total of eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to respondents of which only seventy-seven (77) were returned and validated. This was due to irregular, incomplete and inappropriate responses to some questionnaire. For this study a total of 77 was validated for the analysis.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain internet of things and its challenges for usability in Nigeria. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of internet of things and its challenges for usability in Nigeria
This study was on internet of things and its challenges for usability in Nigeria. Three objectives were raised which included; to ascertain the challenges facing internet usability in Nigeria, to find out what internet of a thing is all about and to find out the opportunities of internet of a thing in Nigeria. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from selected staffs of Yabatech table water. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).
It describes the different properties that make up the technology and highlights the layers that make up its architecture. These technologies include the Sensor layer, Gateway and Network layer, Management Service layer and Applications layer. The key IoT enabler in Africa as well as its current state of deployment and Machine-to-Machine connection in Africa is then explored. Specific examples of IoT deployment is given, while future trend in the industry is forecasted. Thereafter, challenges to the development of the phenomenon are highlighted. Such challenges include: scalability, interoperability and standards, data management and software complexity, power supply, cost over usability, network capacity constraints, illiteracy and lack of local content, trust, security and privacy issues among others. Solutions to these challenges are also suggested
This study recommends knowing all facts about IoT devices and processes, especially the way they generate, collect, store or share information, etc. This is believed to be the first step which enables lawmakers to examine the risk associated with the IoT and then to take necessary actions. Raising awareness among the public about this technology is also essential because there is a real need to sensitize the public to the problem of privacy and data breach and their grave consequences. In the digital environment, people are willing to share everything including personal information and the criminals, as always, wait in ambush.
- Article 29 Data Protection Working Party (2014). Opinion 8/2014 on the on Recent Developments on the Internet of Things.
- Ashton, K. (2009). That ‘Internet of Things’ Thing. available at accessed on 17-11-2015
- Bhaskara Reddy Sannapureddy. (2015) Pros & Cons of Internet Of Things (IOT) (Accessed on Feb 25, 2015)
- Edewede Oriwoh and Marc Conrad (2015). Things in the Internet of Things: Towards a Definition. International Journal of Internet of Things. 4(1): 1-5 DOI: 10.5923/j.ijit.20150401.01
- DeVries, W. T. (2003). Protecting Privacy in the Digital Age. Berkeley Technology Law Journal , Volume 18 (1 Article 19), 284- 311.
- Evans, D. (2011). The Internet of Things – How the Next Evolition of the Internet is Changing Everything. Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group (IBSG). Floerkemeier, F. M. (n.d.). From the Internet of Computers to the Internet of Things . Zurich : Distributed Systems Group, Institute for Pervasive Computing, ETH Zurich .
- FTC Staff Report. (2015). Internet of Things Privacy & Security in a Connected World.
- Gellman, R. ( (2013). Robert Gellman (2013) Privacy and B An Approach Using Fair Information Practices for Developing Countries. Washington DC.: Center for Global Development . Greengard, S. (2015). The Internet of Things. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lopez Research, “An Introduction to the Internet of Things (IoT) – Part 1. of The IoT Series”, Lopert Research LLC, Chestnut Street, San Francisco, CA, pp. 2-6, November 2013