Criminology Project Topics

Investigating Cybercrime Among Female Undergraduate Student in Federal University Lokoja

Investigating Cybercrime Among Female Undergraduate Student in Federal University Lokoja

Investigating Cybercrime Among Female Undergraduate Student in Federal University Lokoja


Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of this study include:

  1. To examine the prevalence of cybercrime among female undergraduate students at Federal University Lokoja.
  2. To identify the factors contributing to cybercrime victimization among female undergraduate students.
  3. To explore the perceptions of female undergraduate students towards cybercrime and its consequences.



Conceptual Review

The Concept of Cybercrime

Cybercrime encompasses a wide range of illegal activities conducted through digital means, posing significant challenges to individuals and organizations globally (Bougaardt & Kyobe, 2021). It includes various forms of online fraud, hacking, identity theft, cyberbullying, and cyberattacks (Chawki, 2021). These activities exploit vulnerabilities in digital systems and networks, resulting in financial loss, privacy breaches, and reputational damage (Akers, 2019). Moreover, cybercrime extends beyond traditional notions of crime, with emerging threats such as ransomware and cryptocurrency fraud reshaping the landscape of online criminality (Matthews, 2020).

Understanding the scope of cybercrime is crucial for devising effective prevention and intervention strategies (Akerinkuotu, 2018). The prevalence of cybercrime continues to rise, driven by technological advancements and the increasing interconnectedness of digital systems (Anyawu et al., 2022). Moreover, the anonymity and global reach afforded by the internet make it a fertile ground for criminal activities, transcending geographical boundaries and jurisdictional constraints (Shariff & Deni, 2005). As such, combating cybercrime requires a comprehensive understanding of its various manifestations and underlying mechanisms.

One of the defining features of cybercrime is its dynamic and evolving nature (Levin et al., 2020). Perpetrators constantly adapt their tactics and techniques to exploit emerging vulnerabilities and circumvent existing security measures (Aileru, 2022). This fluidity poses significant challenges for law enforcement agencies and cybersecurity professionals tasked with detecting and mitigating cyber threats (Folorunso et al., 2020). Moreover, the proliferation of cybercrime-as-a-service platforms on the dark web has lowered the barriers to entry for aspiring cybercriminals, further complicating efforts to combat online criminality (Miller & Morris, 2020).

The impact of cybercrime extends beyond financial losses to encompass broader societal implications (Hutchings & Chua, 2017). Victims of cybercrime may experience psychological distress, loss of trust in digital platforms, and diminished confidence in online interactions (Odo & Odo, 2021). Furthermore, the erosion of cyber trust can undermine the digital economy, hindering innovation and economic growth (Aghatise, 2022). Therefore, addressing cybercrime requires a multifaceted approach that considers both its immediate consequences and broader societal impacts.

In summary, cybercrime represents a complex and multifaceted phenomenon with far-reaching implications for individuals, organizations, and society as a whole. By understanding its definition, scope, and evolving nature, stakeholders can develop more effective strategies to prevent, detect, and respond to cyber threats. However, combating cybercrime requires a coordinated and collaborative effort, involving stakeholders from academia, government, industry, and civil society (Dzomira, 2022). Only through such collective action can we hope to effectively address the challenges posed by cybercrime in the digital age.

Female Undergraduate Students

Female undergraduate students represent a demographic group vulnerable to various forms of cybercrime, necessitating a deeper examination of their unique vulnerabilities and characteristics (Aderinto & Ojedokun, 2017). Research indicates that female students may experience distinct challenges in the online environment, including gender-based harassment, cyberstalking, and intimate partner violence (Ogunleye et al., 2022). Moreover, societal stereotypes and gender norms may shape their digital experiences, influencing their susceptibility to cyber threats (Cross, 2018).





This chapter outlines the methodology employed in researching and investigating cybercrime among female undergraduate students at Federal University Lokoja. The chapter covers various aspects of the research design, population of the study, sampling technique and sample size determination, sources and methods of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical considerations.

Research Design

The research design chosen for this study is a quantitative survey research design. This design was selected due to its suitability for gathering numerical data from a large sample size in a structured manner (Saunders et al., 2019). A survey allows for the collection of standardized data from a diverse group of participants, enabling the researcher to analyze patterns and trends related to cybercrime among female undergraduate students.

Population of the Study

The target population for this study comprises female undergraduate students enrolled at Federal University Lokoja. The choice of this population is justified by the focus of the research on understanding cybercrime experiences among this specific demographic group. The total population of female undergraduate students at Federal University Lokoja is approximately 8000 individuals.

Sampling Technique and Sample Size

For this study, a convenient sample of 120 respondents was selected. A simple random sampling technique was adopted, aiming to ensure that every member of the population had an equal chance of being selected for the sample, thereby potentially enhancing the representativeness of the sample (Bell, 2022). While simple random sampling would have been ideal for achieving a truly representative sample, practical constraints such as time and resource limitations necessitated the use of a convenient sampling approach.



Data Presentation

The results indicate that out of the total 120 distributed questionnaires, 108 were returned and completed, representing a completion rate of 90%. Conversely, 12 questionnaires were not returned or completed, accounting for 10% of the total. This suggests a high level of participation among respondents. The completion rate reflects the effectiveness of the data collection process and suggests that the sample is representative of the target population. Overall, the high return rate validates the reliability of the collected data for analysis and interpretation.


The table illustrates that out of 108 respondents, 6 identified as male, constituting 5.6% of the total, while 102 identified as female, representing 94.4%. This distribution indicates a predominantly female respondent demographic. The significant majority of female respondents suggests a gender imbalance within the sample. This finding may influence the interpretation of results, particularly in discussions related to gender-specific experiences and perceptions of cybercrime. It is crucial to acknowledge this gender disparity when generalizing findings to the broader population of female undergraduate students at the Federal University Lokoja.



Summary of Findings

This study was conducted at Federal University Lokoja and it examined the prevalence, perceptions, and factors contributing to cybercrime vulnerability among female undergraduate students. Through comprehensive data collection and analysis, several significant findings emerged, shedding light on the complex dynamics of cybercrime in the university context.

Firstly, the study revealed a concerning prevalence of cybercrime among female undergraduate students. Tables 4.6 and 4.7 highlighted that a substantial majority of respondents acknowledged encountering various forms of cyber threats, including hacking, online fraud, and identity theft. Moreover, the findings from Tables 4.5 and 4.9 indicated that many students have personally experienced or know someone who has experienced cybercrimes, underscoring the pervasive nature of these incidents within the university community. Such findings highlight the urgent need for proactive measures to address cyber threats and enhance cybersecurity on campus.

Furthermore, the study uncovered critical insights into the perceptions and attitudes of female students towards cybercrime. Tables 4.14 and 4.15 demonstrated that students express significant concerns about the potential consequences of cybercrimes on their financial security and mental well-being. Additionally, Tables 4.16 and 4.17 revealed that many students perceive cybercrimes as a serious issue requiring proactive measures from both individuals and institutions, yet face challenges in reporting such incidents due to fear of retaliation or lack of support from authorities. These findings underscore the importance of creating a supportive reporting environment and providing resources to students affected by cybercrimes.

Moreover, the study identified various socio-economic and behavioural factors contributing to cybercrime vulnerability among female undergraduate students. Tables 4.11, 4.12, and 4.13 highlighted the influence of peer pressure, socioeconomic status, and gender-based harassment on students’ susceptibility to cyber threats. Additionally, Tables 4.8 and 4.10 indicated that a lack of awareness about online security measures and excessive use of social media platforms may further exacerbate students’ vulnerability to cybercrimes. These findings emphasize the need for targeted interventions aimed at addressing underlying socio-economic disparities, promoting digital literacy, and fostering a supportive and inclusive online environment for all students.

Furthermore, the statistical analysis conducted through one-sample t-tests provided empirical evidence supporting the significance of the identified factors. Table 4.18 confirmed that the prevalence of cybercrime, factors contributing to cybercrime victimization, and perceptions of cybercrime significantly influence students’ likelihood of engaging in risky online behaviours. These findings underscore the importance of adopting a multi-faceted approach to addressing cybercrime, encompassing educational initiatives, policy interventions, and collaborative efforts between academia, policymakers, and law enforcement agencies.


The hypotheses tested in this study have provided valuable insights into the prevalence, perceptions, and factors contributing to cybercrime vulnerability among female undergraduate students at Federal University Lokoja. The statistical analysis conducted through one-sample t-tests has yielded compelling evidence supporting the significance of the identified factors. Contrary to the null hypotheses, the results demonstrate that cybercrime is indeed prevalent among female students, certain demographic and behavioural factors contribute to cybercrime victimization, and perceptions of cybercrime significantly influence students’ likelihood of engaging in risky online behaviours.

These findings underscore the pressing need for comprehensive strategies to address cyber threats effectively. Universities must prioritize initiatives aimed at raising awareness about cyber risks, promoting digital literacy, and fostering a supportive reporting environment for students affected by cybercrimes. Additionally, proactive measures should be implemented to enhance cybersecurity on campus, including regular security audits, updates to IT infrastructure, and collaboration with law enforcement agencies to investigate and prosecute cybercriminals.


Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proposed to address cybercrime vulnerability among female undergraduate students at Federal University Lokoja:

  1. Implement Cybersecurity Awareness Programs: Develop and implement comprehensive cybersecurity awareness programs tailored to the needs of female undergraduate students. These programs should focus on educating students about common cyber threats, safe online practices, and the importance of protecting personal information.
  2. Strengthen Reporting Mechanisms: Enhance reporting mechanisms for cybercrimes by establishing confidential reporting channels and providing support to students who have been victimized. Ensure that students feel empowered to report incidents without fear of retaliation and that appropriate measures are taken to address reported cases effectively.
  3. Foster Digital Literacy: Integrate digital literacy training into the university curriculum to equip students with the knowledge and skills needed to navigate the digital landscape safely. Provide resources and support for students to develop critical thinking skills, evaluate online information, and recognize potential cyber threats.
  4. Enhance Campus Cybersecurity Measures: Invest in upgrading campus cybersecurity infrastructure, including firewalls, antivirus software, and intrusion detection systems. Conduct regular security audits and updates to mitigate vulnerabilities and protect sensitive data from cyberattacks.
  5. Promote Gender Equity and Inclusivity: Promote gender equity and inclusivity in cybersecurity initiatives by actively involving female students in decision-making processes and leadership roles. Create opportunities for female students to participate in cybersecurity competitions, workshops, and mentorship programs to enhance their skills and confidence in cybersecurity.
  6. Collaborate with External Partners: Foster collaboration with external partners, including industry stakeholders, government agencies, and non-profit organizations, to share best practices, resources, and expertise in cybersecurity. Establish partnerships to facilitate internships, research opportunities, and career development initiatives for female students interested in cybersecurity fields.

Limitations of the Study

While this study provides valuable insights into the prevalence, perceptions, and factors contributing to cybercrime vulnerability among female undergraduate students at Federal University Lokoja, it is essential to acknowledge several limitations that may have impacted the findings. Firstly, the study’s reliance on self-reported data through questionnaires may introduce response bias and social desirability bias, wherein participants may provide responses they believe are socially acceptable rather than reflecting their true experiences or perceptions. Additionally, the use of a convenient sample of female undergraduate students from a single institution limits the generalizability of the findings to other demographic groups or educational settings. Future research could benefit from employing more diverse sampling methods to ensure broader representation and enhance the external validity of the findings.

Furthermore, while efforts were made to mitigate common method biases through careful questionnaire design and data analysis techniques, the cross-sectional nature of the study restricts the ability to establish causal relationships between variables. Longitudinal studies or experimental designs could provide more robust evidence of causality and help elucidate the temporal dynamics of cybercrime vulnerability among female undergraduate students over time. Additionally, the study’s focus on female students may overlook the experiences of male students or other gender identities affected by cybercrime, highlighting the need for intersectional approaches to understanding and addressing cyber threats within the university context. Despite these limitations, this study serves as a valuable foundation for future research endeavours aimed at enhancing cybersecurity and promoting digital safety among university students.


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