Banking and Finance Project Topics

Lean Manufacturing and Performance of Coca-Cola Company in Lagos State, Nigeria

Lean Manufacturing and Performance of Coca-Cola Company in Lagos State, Nigeria

Lean Manufacturing and Performance of Coca-Cola Company in Lagos State, Nigeria

Chapter One

Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of this study are as follows:

  1. To assess the influence of Lean Manufacturing on the profitability of the Coca-Cola Company in Lagos State, Nigeria.
  2. To examine the impact of Lean Manufacturing on customer satisfaction within the Coca-Cola Company in Lagos State, Nigeria.
  3. To evaluate the relationship between Lean Manufacturing and key indicators of productivity and market share for the Coca-Cola Company in Lagos State, Nigeria.



Conceptual Review

 Lean Manufacturing Principles

Lean Manufacturing represents a systematic approach aimed at enhancing operational efficiency and minimizing waste throughout the production process (Womack et al., 2018). In the context of manufacturing, this approach focuses on creating value for customers while eliminating activities that do not contribute to the final product. According to Alawode and Ojo (2018), the core philosophy of Lean Manufacturing is rooted in the Toyota Production System, emphasizing continuous improvement, waste reduction, and value creation.

Lean Manufacturing is fundamentally based on the principle of eliminating waste (Alawode & Ojo, 2018). Waste, in this context, refers to any activity or process that does not add value to the final product. This includes overproduction, excess inventory, defects, waiting times, unnecessary transportation, over-processing, and underutilized employee skills (Womack et al., 2018). By systematically identifying and eliminating these sources of waste, Lean Manufacturing aims to optimize resource utilization and streamline production processes.

Continuous improvement, often referred to as Kaizen is a central tenet of Lean Manufacturing (Anvari et al., 2021). Kaizen involves the ongoing effort to enhance processes incrementally, seeking small, continuous improvements rather than large-scale changes. This philosophy fosters a culture of continuous learning and adaptation within the organization, empowering employees at all levels to contribute to process enhancements. Research by Bhamu and Singh Sangwan (2022) highlights that Kaizen principles encourage organizations to regularly review and refine their processes, ensuring adaptability and responsiveness to changing market dynamics.

Value Stream Mapping (VSM) is another crucial sub-variable within Lean Manufacturing (Gusman et al., 2021). VSM is a visualization tool that allows organizations to map the entire production process, from raw materials to the end consumer. This mapping enables a comprehensive understanding of value-adding and non-value-adding activities in the production flow. As indicated by research (Gusman et al., 2021), organizations can use VSM to identify areas of inefficiency and implement targeted improvements. By visualizing the entire value stream, organizations gain insights into how each step contributes to the overall value delivered to the customer.

In the manufacturing context, the conceptualization of waste reduction, Kaizen, and Value Stream Mapping serves as the foundation for operational excellence (Alawode & Ojo, 2018). The theoretical underpinnings of Lean Manufacturing emphasize the importance of creating a value-driven culture, where every aspect of the production process is scrutinized for opportunities to enhance efficiency and reduce waste. The synergistic integration of these principles is designed to create a lean, agile, and customer-focused manufacturing environment (Anvari et al., 2021).

In summary, Lean Manufacturing principles provide a holistic framework for organizations to optimize their manufacturing processes. The emphasis on waste reduction, continuous improvement through Kaizen, and the strategic use of Value Stream Mapping underscores the commitment to delivering value to customers while eliminating inefficiencies in the production process (Womack et al., 2018; Gusman et al., 2021; Anvari et al., 2021). The next sections of the literature review will delve into the specific sub-variables of Lean Manufacturing and their impact on organizational performance.

Performance Metrics in Manufacturing

Performance metrics play a pivotal role in assessing the effectiveness of manufacturing processes and ensuring alignment with organizational goals. In this section, we explore key performance indicators within the manufacturing domain, shedding light on how organizations measure success.

Profitability stands as a fundamental performance indicator for manufacturing organizations (Fullerton & Wempe, 2019). It encapsulates the financial health of a company, reflecting its ability to generate revenue while effectively managing costs. Research indicates that Lean Manufacturing practices, such as waste reduction and improved efficiency, directly impact profitability by reducing production costs and enhancing overall financial performance (Fullerton & Wempe, 2019). As organizations implement Lean principles, the positive impact on the bottom line becomes a critical aspect of assessing the success of these initiatives.

Customer satisfaction metrics are integral to evaluating the success of manufacturing processes (Sawhney & Ehie, 2022). Customer satisfaction reflects how well a company’s products or services meet or exceed customer expectations. Lean Manufacturing’s emphasis on producing quality products with minimal defects directly contributes to customer satisfaction (Sawhney & Ehie, 2022). Organizations adopting Lean principles often experience improvements in product quality, reduced lead times, and increased responsiveness to customer demands, all of which positively influence customer satisfaction metrics.




Introduction Research

This research aimed to investigate the impact of Lean Manufacturing on organizational performance, with a focus on the manufacturing sector. The methodology employed in this study adhered to well-established research principles and philosophies. The chosen approach allowed for a robust exploration of the relationship between Lean Manufacturing practices and performance metrics within the selected context (Saunders et al., 2019).

 Research Design

The research design is a critical aspect of any study as it dictates the overall approach and methods used to address the research question (Saunders et al., 2019). In the context of this research, the chosen design aligns with the positivist paradigm, emphasizing an objective and empirical investigation of Lean Manufacturing practices and their impact on organizational performance. Positivism, as a research philosophy, asserts that the social world can be studied using similar scientific methods employed in the natural sciences, aiming for objectivity and generalizability (Saunders et al., 2019).

The selection of a quantitative survey research design was informed by the need to examine causal relationships between variables systematically (Saunders et al., 2019). This design is particularly well-suited for investigations where numerical data is crucial for drawing conclusions and establishing patterns (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). In the context of this study, the primary focus is on understanding the causal connections between the implementation of Lean Manufacturing practices and subsequent changes in organizational performance metrics.

Quantitative surveys are effective tools for collecting numerical data from a large sample, allowing for statistical analyses to discern patterns and relationships (Saunders et al., 2019). The use of surveys in this research facilitates the systematic gathering of responses from a significant number of participants within the target population. The structured nature of survey questions ensures consistency in data collection, enabling the researcher to draw reliable and generalizable conclusions regarding the impact of Lean Manufacturing practices.

The quantitative survey design further enables the application of statistical techniques to analyze the collected data. Statistical analysis is instrumental in identifying trends, patterns, and correlations within the dataset, thereby providing empirical evidence to address the research question (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). The ability to quantify and analyze the impact of Lean Manufacturing practices on organizational performance contributes to the scientific rigour of the study, enhancing the validity and reliability of the findings.

Population of the Study

The target population for this study comprised manufacturing organizations actively implementing Lean Manufacturing practices. The justification for this population selection lies in its relevance to the research objectives. Considering the widespread adoption of Lean principles in manufacturing, focusing on this sector ensured the collection of pertinent data related to the research question. The study aimed to engage with a diverse range of manufacturing entities, including both small-scale enterprises and large corporations, to capture a comprehensive understanding of the impact of Lean Manufacturing (Saunders et al., 2019).


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  • Ahuja, I. P. S., & Khamba, J. S. (2020). An evaluation of TPM initiatives in the Indian industry for enhanced manufacturing performance. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 32(11), 51-53.
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  • Alawode, A. J., & Ojo, A. O. (2018). Just In Time (JIT) Manufacturing: A Panacea for Low Productivity and Idle Inventory in Nigerian Manufacturing Industries. Journal of Engineering & Applied Sciences, 3(10), 742-747. ISSN: 1816-949X.
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  • Amjad, S. (2022). Role of Logistical Practices in Quality Service Delivery at Supermarkets: A Case Study from Pakistan. South Asian Journal of Operations and Logistics, 1(1), 39-56.
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