Management of Abattoir Waste in Nigeria (A Case Study of Bodija and Akinyele Market)
Aims and objectives of the study
The major aim of the study is to examine the management of abattoir waste in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study include;
- To examine the negative consequences of lack of adequate treatment of abattoir waste in Nigeria.
- To determine the level of treatment of abattoir waste in Bodija and Akinyele market in Oyo state, Nigeria.
- To examine the effect of abattoir waste on the socio economic development of Oyo state.
- To investigate the role of the federal and state governments towards adequate management of abattoir waste in Oyo state.
- To recommend ways of effective management of abattoir waste in Bodija and Akinyele market.
Abattoir is commonly known as a slaughter house in the United State and much of the English-speaking world. A slaughter house regularly has a number of criticisms leveled against them, from animal right groups, but also other groups on the issues. Contamination is a major concern with slaughter house. For instances, fecal matter can contaminate the food, and other sanitation lapses are likely to occur. In 1996, the U.S Department of Agriculture (USDA) determined that in a number of beef samples taken from processing plants around the country, 7.5 percent were contaminated with salmonella, and 30 percent with Staphylococcus aureus.
The impact of high organic pollutants, on reports have also shown that indiscriminate disposal of the receiving waste and consequently creating high abattoir waste may introduce enteric pathogens into competition for pathogens isolate chemical oxygen demand (COD) value is far higher than from abattoir waste-waters can survived in the maximum limit of 80mgk set by Federal Environment and pose danger to humans and animals.
According to Alonge (1991) He defined Abattoir as a premise approved and registered by the controlling authority for hygiene slaughtering and inspection of animals processing and effective preservation and storage of meat product for human consumption. While meadows (1995) says that slaughtering of animals result in meat supply and useful by-products like leather and skin, can also contaminate underground water.
According to Lewicki (1993) Abattoir operations product is characterized highly on organic waste with relatively high level of suspended solids, liquid and fat. The solid waste includes condemned meat, undigested ingesta, bones, horns, hairs, and aborted fetuses. The liquid waste is usually composed of dissolved solids, blood, gut contents, urine and water. Animal food is always micro-biologically contaminated by organism living in it naturally.
According to Alonge (2005) an abattoir is a special facility designed for receiving and meat product before release to the public. The establishment and management of abattoir and wastes in Nigeria have always be regarded as social services by all the three tiers of government. Each of these government authorities has for many years apathetic about taking over responsibilities. This development has result in meat inspection, poor environmental hygiene and waste management and compromise of public interest. The slaughtering and handling of meat became generally poor.
The slaughtering facilities where available decayed and were abandoned as a result of disuse and lack of maintenance of abattoirs and slaughter house operate in sub-standard conditions. Media reports have shown that in some cases butchers clean their dressed carcass and trips in nearby streams prone to human and animal faeces contamination due to lack of water supply within the abattoir premises.
The hostile attitude often shown by most of our butches and meal processors to modernization and change, the future role of private practitioners and delineation of functions of the various professional in the industry, all need to be critically examined and solution proffered.
According to David West (2002) Historical records show that man has been concerned with the source and handling of meat supply based on philosophies of diet, religious and ritual practices. Ancient Egypt has been reported to enact food edicts that banned pig (unclean) and cow (sacred) for human consumption.
This chapter covers the description and discussion on the various techniques and procedures used in the study to collect and analyze the data as it is deemed appropriate
For this study, the survey research design was adopted. The choice of the design was informed by the objectives of the study as outlined in chapter one. This research design provides a quickly efficient and accurate means of assessing information about a population of interest. It intends to study the management of abattoir in Nigeria. The study will be conducted in Bodija and Akinyele market.
Population of the Study
The population for this study were market men and women in Bodija and Akinyele market. A total of 86 respondents were selected from the population figure out of which the sample size was determined. The reason for choosing Abuja metropolis is because of its proximity to the researcher.
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter, focus on the analysis and interpretation of data collected from the fields. The data collected was only used for the purpose of this project work, which came through administration of questionnaire.
A total of one hundred (100) questionnaire were personally distributed to the selected private and government abattoir in Bodija and Akinyele Market, but seventy (70) copies were returned out of one hundred (100) questionnaires.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
One of the fundamental of the scope of personal hygiene is the meat handle. A meat handler is any person that has something to do with meat preparation, preservation, storage, and service for public consumption. Basically, meat handler must undergo medical examination before obtaining the certification of fitness. Majority of the butches do not have medical certificate of fitness. They sell meat to members of the public without under-going medical examination to ascertain their physical fitness. Any butcher harboring any of the infections is likely to pass on the causative agent to the meat and finally to a susceptible host. As stipulated by the public health law, the use of apron by butcher is an indispensable factor.
Butchers have no apron but use turn out cloths which could also harbor vermin’s, egg of insect etc. The turnout cloths may also consist of patches of holes through which there may be direct contact of the body of butcher with the meat serving as a direct link of diseases transmission. Insects eggs can fall to the meats during operations, thereby causing an outbreak of infectious disease.
Similarly, the infectious agents can also be transmitted among staff through any of the available medium which includes air, water and contaminated food through deposit of the agent of the disease. Flies are contaminated to health. They are not only a personal nuisance but they infect food and spread diseases. There are many kinds besides the common house fly, green and blue beetles, the stable fly. All are dangerous to mankind, because of the habits.
Moreover, it is clear that, they are mechanical vectors for “Faeca-Oral” transmission. Therefore, improper disposal of abattoir waste will provide adequate opportunities for these flies to bread and later contaminates our meat. There are various ways in which the housefly contaminates food. They are:
- They carry feaces on their hairs while feed on infected faces.
- Defecating on the food during feeding the gross in adequate and in sanitary condition of the provided space for keep equipment and utensils in most abattoir militate against proper care of the equipment. The design of those spaces is such a way that dust, flies and rodents find easy accession to them. These dirty utensils attract a lot of lies and as well emanate odour.
Failure to take proper precautions in cleaning the equipment is a common source of food poisoning. The utensils are some time contaminated by flies, dust and rodents and the result is usually contraction of food borne diseases. The provision of dustbin as an important facility for refuse dumping in an abattoir.
Most butchers do not keep their premises in good sanitary condition and many of them do not have dustbin. Few of them provides for waste bin have no tight fitting cover therefore poor condition of the waste bin, non provision of the waste bin and failure to keep their premises in good sanitary condition had given rise to fly infestation and offensive odour thereby exposing their meat to contamination. As a result of the inefficient use of the waste bin and the littering around the promises provide adequate opportunities for flies breeding and later contamination of the food which is likely to result to any of the gastro-intestine infections.
However, accumulation of waste is common found as most of the refuse is mainly of organic matter a lot offensive odour is emitted. Also since flies delight in filths they are found on waste.
They breed in waste (refuse) dumps moreover, a host of disease causing microorganisms are contaminated in waste. These flies usually have access to meat / food. They contaminate this food with germs. As excreta disposal rodent and fly infestation is as common sight around the premises.
Insects especially flies and cockroaches mainly convey bacteria to food when they settle at it. This is particularly the case in place where sanitation is poor. And intestinal disease are rife, vermin’s, particularly rats and mice may be the carriers of food poisoning. They may do this, by their dropping. The effectiveness of toilet has lead to a high rate of gastro intestinal infections among staffs and person around the area it could be observed that ideal sanitary latrine for excreta disposal is uncommon as a result the use of very shallow trenches were adopted and have wide spread and also they try to provide the one different from shallow trench: it is always of in sanitary standard and as such these in sanitary latrines are used without any attempt being mate to cover the faeces in order to make it not accessible to flies and vermin’s, as well as to domestic animals like dog, fowls
In such as insanitary condition faeces are littered all over the premises providing suitable harborages for flies breeding, odour, nuisance unsightliness etc. In most abattoir open drainage system is adapted which is channeled to the soaking away pit. After much accumulation of liquid waste product, the permeability reduce as a result, the liquid waste is retained and filled up to capacity and finally become defective round the premises at it is usually exposed when constructed. Coupled with the presence of weeds and faece litters, suitable habitat is provided for flies breeding and other insect pest vermin’s, emission of odour, pollution of the environment and it makes the premises looks unsightly in nature.
Insect emerge from the environment gain asses in to the hall of the abattoir as a result of improper screening of windows and other spaces privileged to ensure cross ventilation after creating must destruction on the meat product, they are accommodated in cracks and crevices in the floor of the slaughter house in such a situation, there is high prevalence of gastro intestinal diseases among staff, butchers, meat seller and also people living within the area and extension from a far distant places of peoples who also purchased the contaminated meat.
Provision of cloakroom, there should be a cloakroom where workers can change if it his period and the office should be there for recording and the abattoir should be disinfected and also the instrument must be sterilized after each work.
There has been age long problems leading to improper management of an abattoir in Oyo state. These problematic situation of poor management of abattoir arises from various aspect of man’s activities. It is however pertinent that man should embrace personal hygiene as a priority and take program on hygiene exercise on meat sold in Bodija and Akinyele market abattoir in Oyo state to ensures the safety of food consumption. This terms from the fact that abattoir is a place is a premise where animals are been slaughtered.
Furthermore, it is also advocate that far healthful condition and safety purposes, proper management must be put in place to forestall the spread of zoometric disease that is diseases that can be transmitted from animal to man. Form the foregoing, it is important that mass health education of all sectors of the society, particularly Oyo state abattoir should be carried out the health education should be aim at creating the awareness of proper management of abattoir and effect of improper management of abattoir also standard and devised methods of ensure that these problems (Improper management of abattoir) is brought to an end. These standards have in several occasions and in different place been transmitted into legislation and is abide to ensure success.
To bring about proper management of an abattoir, the health officers should carries out proper inspection on inside and outside premises of an abattoir to detect the nuisance present such as overgrown weeds, broken floor, leaking sage roof, debilitating walls, etc and issue abatement notice to the manager or owner.
Also, the health officer should carryout proper and regular inspection on abattoir to ensure that the meat handler are clean at all time. Any meat handler suffering from any infectious disease such as throat infection, cold, dysentery e.t.c should not be allowed into the slaughter coughing and blowing of nose should be discourage. In addition, the protective clothes must be washed regularly and be worn at all times when at work the meat handler or butchers must be compelled to undergo medical examination regularly.
The local government health personnel should rise up to the challenge and carry out intensive and sustained health education programmed in the area and among abattoir workers and meat sellers. These programme will centered on effective management of excreta and refuse so as to control the environmental pollution such as water, land, and air pollution. They should teach the people simple ways of proper management of an abattoir and maintaining personal hygiene in order to raise their standard of living and raise the standard of meat hygiene practices among staff and abattoir workers.
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