Food Science and Technology Project Topics

Microbial Quality and Proximate Composition of Kunu Produced and Sold in Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo

Microbial Quality and Proximate Composition of Kunu Produced and Sold in Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo

Microbial Quality and Proximate Composition of Kunu Produced and Sold in Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo

Chapter One

The Objective of the Study

Hence, the study intends to evaluate the proximate composition and microbial quality of kunu drinks sold in Owo Local Government, Ondo State as this will serve as comparative indices as to what is obtainable in other parts of the country and help take a holistic and enduring decision towards the production of this food drink.



 Kunnu Drink

Kunnu zaki is a traditional fermented non-alcoholic beverage widely consumed in Northern Nigeria. It widely consumed for its thirst quenching properties most especially during the dry season (Akoma et al., 2006). Though consumed throughout the year, it is extensively consumed during the dry season (Adeyemi and Umar, 1997; Elmahmood et al., 2007). It is a staple beverage drink that is relatively cheap and nutritious when compared to carbonated drinks (Adeyemi and Umar, 1997). Its cheapness is owed to the ready availability of cereals and additives locally sourced as they grow throughout the savannah belt of West Africa (Elmahmood, 2007). Depending on the cereal availability, grains such as millet (Pennisetum typhoideum), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), Maize (Zea mays), rice (Orza sativa) and acha (Dijitap exilis) are commonly used for the traditional production of kunnu (Ahmed et al., 2003; Gaffa et al., 2004).

It has immense social, economic, nutritional and medical benefits to numerous consumers, the sales and consumption of this locally made beverage is high due to the high cost of other non-alcoholic drink. Due to the non-alcoholic nature of this drink, it is widely accepted and consumed by both Christians and Muslims alike as a substitute for alcoholic drinks. The drink is usually sold at the motor parks, school premises, market places and even served during social gatherings (Abegaz, 2007).

The variety of the drink made from sorghum is a milky light brown colour, while the one which is made from millet and maize is whitish in colour. Species such as ginger, black pepper, garlic, red pepper and clover are commonly added as flavor and taste improver. Sugar is also added to act as a sweetener. It can also be sweetened with honey together with small quantity of sweet potatoes, malted rice, malted sorghum and cadaba farinose crude extract (Ahmed et al., 2003).

Ayo and Okeke (1998) have reported that kunnu is rich in carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals but low in protein. This drink isewufr however still produced at village technology level.

Production of Kunnu

The production of kunnu made by first allowing the grain seed to germinate, then soaking the seeds in water for a few days and blending the soaked grain with sweet potatoes and ginger or pepper to form a smooth paste. This paste is then divided into two parts. One part is placed in a vessel and has boiling water poured on it then it is stirred to give thick moisture. The other part of the paste is then added to this mixture and it is stirred some more (Gaffar et al., 2002).

Utilization of Kunnu Drink

Kunnu drink can be utilized in so many ways. Mostly it is consumed chilled for thirst quenching and also taken when one is hungry. It can also be taken hot with bean cakes and milk as desired by the consumer.




Collections of Materials

Sample of freshly prepared Kunu was obtained from Oba market within Owo, Ondo State. The sample was transferred within an hour of collection to the laboratory in its original package and the contents aseptically withdrawn from the bottles for isolation, enumeration and identification of microorganisms. The remaining sample was used for proximate analysis.


Preparation of Media

The three media (Nutrient Agar, (NA); MacConkey agar, (MAC); Potato Dextrose Agar, (PDA)) used were prepared according to the manufactures’ procedures (Titan Biotech Ltd. BHIWADI-301019, Rajasthan, India).




Table 1: Proximate Composition of Kunu Drink





Proximate analysis of the kunu samples revealed moderate acidity in pH for the entire sample tested. The result suggests that they are of good nutritive value and could serve as source of protein and energy to. The microbial content of these hawked kunu drink was high and was contaminated with microorganisms which are potentially pathogenic to man. The presence of these isolated organisms in kunu sample analyzed could serve as an indicator for the need to promote awareness about possible health hazards that could arise due to handling and processing.


Based on this research study it is therefore recommended that regulatory agencies should intervene by setting standards in acquisition of raw material, production techniques as well as health status of personnel involved in the production process.


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