Biochemistry Project Topics

Mixing Studies on the Prolongation of Prothrombin Time Test and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time on Patients in UCTH

Mixing Studies on the Prolongation of Prothrombin Time Test and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time on Patients in UCTH

Mixing Studies on the Prolongation of Prothrombin Time Test and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time on Patients in UCTH

Chapter One

Objectives of the study

The main aim of this study is to assess possible association between prothrombin time and activated partial thrombo-plastin time with effects of blood pressures in hypertensive and normotensive subjects and their significant utility for screening hemostatic dysfunction in hypertensive patients.



Cardiovascular diseases account for approximately one-third of premature deaths in men and a quarter of women, and hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (Brook, 2011). Despite current knowledge and extensive clinical and experimental studies, the cause of hypertension is unknown in approximately 95% of all cases (McMahon and Chopra, 2012). Hypertension is a chronic disease with 140/90 mmHg). It is one of the most common human diseases in the world. About 17 million deaths annually are due to cardiovascular disease worldwide, almost a third of all. Of these, complications from hypertension lead to 9.4 million deaths worldwide each year. Hypertension accounts for at least 45% of deaths from heart disease (Brook, 2011). Due to a certain morbidity, mortality and related economic costs for society, hypertension is now a serious challenge to public health in developed and developing countries (Hoffman and Cooper, 2012).

According to recent epidemiological data, the overall prevalence of hypertension in the total population in Sub-Saharan Africa 28% of the total population in Sub-Saharan Africa has increased by 22% with a constant annual increase (Prasad et al., 2013).

According to Hoffman and Cooper (2012), hypertension is classified as primary or secondary. This is critical when no medical reason for high blood pressure can be found. This type accounts for 90 to 95% of cases of arterial hypertension. Secondary hypertension accounts for approximately 10% of all hypertension cases. Identifiable primary causes of secondary hypertension are renal disease, renal aldosteronism, and phaeochromocytoma. Secondary hypertension has specific therapy; it is curable and can often be distinguished from the primary one for clinical reasons (Moynihan et al., 2014).

Risk factors associated with hypertension include age, race, family history, obesity, inactive lifestyle, alcohol abuse, and stress among other things. Hypertension increases the hardness of the arteries and causes heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and strokes in individuals (Eckman et al., 2019).

Prothrombin time (PT) and activated thromboplastin part time (aPTT) are global coagulation tests used to evaluate the coagulation system in a clinical setting (Mosadeghrad et al., 2017). Multiple factor deficiencies are known to contribute to the respective screening test result and may be associated with bleeding; however, prolongation of aPTT may be associated with an inflatable state if lupus antidepressant is present (Kamal et al., 2020). A clinically relevant decrease in the activity of taping factors is usually associated with prolongation of the respective global screening test results. By analogy, therefore, shortened taping times may be an indication of an inflatable state. Earlier studies found some evidence that short aPTTs are associated with a higher incidence of thromboembolic disorders (Fujikawa, 2005; DeFrances et al., 2010; and Moynihan et al., 2014). These findings are disputed, and there is some suggestion in the literature that short aPTTs occur during bleeding episodes. Against the backdrop of this study, the research therefore carries out mixing studies on the prolongation of prothrombin time test and activated partial thromboplastin time on patients in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH).



Research method

Study Area

The study will be carried out at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State. Calabar is the capital city of Cross River State which is divided into Calabar Municipal and Calabar South Local Governments. It has an area of 604 km and a population of 371,022 at the 2006 census.

Study Population.

The population of this study will involve hypertensive patients and normotensive control subjects for PT and APTT using Quick one-stage methods. Selection of patients will be done with the support of the physician and nursing staff of the Medical Outpatient Department (MOPD) of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar. The procedures will consist of a questionnaire interview, taking of patient’s history, and blood pressure measurement.


Method of data analysis

The data collected will be systematically analyzed as appropriate for means, standard deviation, Student’s 𝑡-test, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and analysis of variance on Microsoft Excel and SPSS software version 18 (California Inc.).


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