NIGERIAN FOREIGN POLICY OBJECTIVES IN PROMOTING OF TOURISM INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA
Objective of the Study
The objective of the research study is stated below:
- To examine the foreign policies for the development and sustenance of tourism industry in Nigeria.
- To identify the benefits of tourism to the development of Nigeria economy
- To identify the problems and challenges of tourism in Nigeria
- To suggest ways of improving tourism in Nigeria
3.1 Research Design
According to Jha (2008), qualitative research is referred to multi-method in focus, which includes an interpretive and naturalistic approach to its subject matter. With this, it is observed that the qualitative researchers derived answers from people’s opinion and viewon the subject matters. This means they study matters in their natural form, and achieving this, it involve the collections of different of empirical materials such as personal experience, case study, life story, introspective, historical, observational, visual texts like described routine and problematic moments and their meanings in individuals’ lives, and interactions. However, qualitative approach to researches is concerned with opinion, subjective assessment of attitudes and behaviour.
However, the researcher has chosen to use both qualitative and quantitative research method to carry out the findings because of the theme of the research work. According to the researcher, the tourists, the service providers, academia, and ministers of tourism opinions and views will be needed for the success of the research work. The researcher has adopted survey measure, were questionnaire was used to seek the tourists’ opinion and interview was carried out to seek the professionals’ opinions and views.The questionnaire was used to obtain responds from the tourists since it required large numbers of tourists in order to ensure the validity of the results. And on the other hand, the interview was also conducted among selected professionals who are in line of tourism to ensure the reliability of the result.
Data Collection Procedure
In this research the researcher collected both qualitative and quantitative data and information. In the collection of the data and information about the view and opinion of different classes of respondents, two different sets of questionnaire were prepared. The researcher prepared both open and closed ended questionnaire format. The open ended questionnaire was designed for tourism experts, tourism organisation, and ministers of tourism, while the closed ended questionnaire was designed for tourist.
The closed ended questionnaire was designed in a way to study the opinion and view of the tourists about development and sustainability of tourism in the country. The gender, age group, marital status, type of tourist, and academic qualification were enquired from the respondents. Also, anattempt was made to know the view of the tourist about the present situation of tourism, the problems the tourism industry is facing, necessities of the country attractions, how to promote the country tourism, what is expected of the government, and how the country’s core values can be improved. The open ended questionnaire was designed to figure out the opinion and the view of experts who are in the field of tourism, experts like; travel agent, hotel manager, professor, senior officer in tourism board, and manager in Transportation Company. However, the objective of the open ended questionnaire was to examine the way forward on how tourism industry could be developed and sustained in the country. The country is said to be endowed with tourist attractions which are yet to be tapped while neighbouring countries like Ghana, Cameroon, and others are beginning to take advantage of the huge opportunities offered by tourism and why not Nigeria?
Survey Method and Study Sample
The data was collected with a questionnaire survey. The survey was conducted in the concerned country on the 27th of March 2021 atsilver bird galleria Victoria Island in Lagos. Thousands of tourist usually visited the cinema on a daily bases. 100 of survey questionnaire were distributed at the cinema to tourists, out of which 85 responses were received with completion while 15 questionnaires were incomplete. In percentage, at out of 100%, 85% was completed while 15% was incomplete. The questionnaire was designed in two sections which are section A and B. Section A was used to enquired personal data of the respondents while section B focus on the subject matters. Besides the tourist survey, tourism experts who were in the field for years were also interviewed. But due to time factors and unavailability of the interviewees, the interview questions were sent out through the email and five responses were received.
The interview questions were brief, detailed, and self-explanatory. 6 questions were asked in average, the questions were able to generate opinions and the views of the experts on the research subject. However, the responses were generated from different tourism sector, one travel agent, and a senior officer in tourism board, a professor in tourism field, a manager in hotel, and a manager in transportation firm. The interview questions take 20 -25 minutes to be completed.
Data Processing and Analysis
The data collected from the survey were coded, tabulated and interpreted in a presentable format. All together the survey questionnaire includes 21 questions, 5 questions in section A which was used to collected the respondents personal data, and 16 questions in section B. Question 1 and 2 from section A were tabulated and presented on the same table while other questions were done separately. Microsoft office excel was used to carried out the analyses of the data collected from the survey. The analyses of the primary data were carried out in percentage of the total response. Besides all these, the information generated from the interview were also treated and processed thoroughly. The interview questions include 6 questions and the response generated from each of the questions are treated and analysed individually based on question by question in 6 different sub-headings.
Validity and Reliability
In executing a research work, it will be of great value to evaluate validity and reliability irrespective of the method (qualitative or quantitative) used. According to Edward & Richard (1979), reliability deals with the level in which an experiment, test, or any measuring procedure produced same result over and over again when the research conducted on different time with different materials. Validity on the other hand is referred to as the crucial relationship between the general ideas derived from the research and the indicator (Edward & Richard 1979). Reliability is tested based on credibility, trustiness, and dependability. However, the interview questions were designed with positive mind, neutrality, and simplicity for best understanding for the interviewees. Besides this, the interviewees are professionals in their various fields, reliable, non-biased, and they are accurate in their responses. The researcher had considered all foreign policies to evaluate the reliability of the research. More so, the interviewees are directly involve in the research, that is, they are directly concerned with the research subject matter.
The survey questionnaire on the other hand was prepared with simplicity for easy and best understanding for the tourists. At the same time, the questionnaire was free of biased, offensive, and harmful words.Validity is use in measuring the level of reliability and consistency of the result obtained from the research. However, the result of the research is valued based on the practicalities of the subject.The practicality of the result has been scrutinized to ensure the validity of the result of the research.
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