Nutrient Composition and Sensory Properties of Ogi Fortified With Sesame Seed
The Objective of The Study
Ogi is an important food for many people in various parts of Nigeria and in some other West African countries. However, some of the challenges facing the production of Ogi are nutrient losses which occur at different stages of its production (Awoyale et al., 2016). Therefore, a food supplement/enrichment that can add to its nutrient composition is needed.
Therefore, this research was therefore embarked upon to investigate nutrient composition and sensory evaluation of Ogi fortified with sesame seed.
Maize (Zea may L)
Corn, commonly known as maize (Zea mays L.), is annual crop that belongs to the family of grass i.e. Poaceae. Maize is also recognized by different synonyms such as zea, corn, silk corn etc. In Hindi it is called Makka and Barajovar. Maize is mother grain of Americans and is considered as the earliest cultivar of the new world. It is most widely distributed world’s plant. Multitudes of maize subspecies are identified and classified depending upon the extent of starch each have (Kumar and Jhariya, 2013). Maize is a crop having short life cycle and requires warm weather, appropriate apprehension and management. It is valuable livestock feed, as human food and raw material for several industries.
Maize is native of South America but extensively cultivated in various other countries as well like India, Thailand, Pakistan and China, and in several parts of Philippines. It is considered as staple article of food in some islands and provinces. It is widely grown in temperate and tropic regions with well drained and fertile soil (Kumar and Jhariya, 2013).
Taxonomy of Maize
Species: Zea mays
The genus Zea consists of four species of which Zea mays L. is economically important. The other Zea species, referred to as teosintes, are largely wild grasses native to Mexico and Central America. The number of chromosomes in Zea mays is 2n = 20. The tribe Andropogoneae comprises seven genera, namely old and new world groups. Old world comprises Coix (2n = 10/20), Chionachne (2n = 20), Sclerachne (2n = 20), Trilobachne (2n = 20), and Polytoca (2n = 20), and new world group has Zea and Tripsacum (Biology of maize, 2011).
Nutrition Value of Maize
Maize kernel is an edible and nutritive part of the plant. It also contains vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (niacin), vitamin B3 (riboflavin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), folic acid, selenium, N-p-coumaryltryptamine, and N-ferrulyltryptamine. Potassium is a major nutrient present which has a good significance because an average human diet is deficient in it (Kumar and Jhariya, 2013). Roasted maize kernels are also used as coffee substitute (Breadley, 1992).
Maize germ contains about 45–50% of oil that is used in cooking, salads and is obtained from wet milling process (Orthoefer et al., 2003). The oil contains 14% saturated fatty acids, 30% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 56% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The refined maize oil contains linoleic acid 54–60%, oleic acid 25–31%, palmitic acid 11–13%, stearic acid 2–3% and linolenic acid 1% (CRA, 2006). The two main forms of vitamin E present in our diet are alpha (α) and gamma (γ) tocopherols. Maize oil is amongst the rich sources of these tocopherols, especially γ-tocopherol and their reported concentration was 21.3 and 94.1 mg/100 g, respectively (Sen et al., 2006). Maize silk contains various constituents essential for our diet such as maizenic acid, fixed oils, resin, sugar, mucilage, salt, and fibers (Kumar and Jhariya, 2013).
Utilization of Maize
There are varieties of products that can be derived after application of food processing methods like dry milling, wet milling and alkali processing to make it consumable for human beings as discussed above. Commonly, maize is used to make flour, oil, starch, grits, flakes, popcorn, etc. (Locatelli and Berardo, 2014). Few very popular products derived from maize are discussed below.
This consists mostly of the endosperm and has content of B vitamins. It is used by brewers as a starch medium for the action of barley malt in the preparation of wort for the production of beer. It is also used to make chapatti or bread in the northern region of India. The flour is supplemented with green leafy vegetables to make it more nutritious and healthy. The chapatti is famous around the Punjab as ‘makki di roti’ that is served with well-cooked mustard leaves along with butter.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The Maize (Zea may L), and Sesame seed (Sesame indicum, L.) used are purchased from a local market (Oja Ikoko) in Owo, Ondo state, Nigeria. The samples were thoroughly cleaned by picking all broken kernels, stones, together with other foreign particles and the good ones were sorted out.
Production of fermented maize flour
The maize was first sorted to remove foreign materials after which it was thoroughly washed separately in distilled water and soaked in a plastic container with cover. The water was decanted after three days of soaking and wet milled into slurry using a sterilized warring blender. This was followed by sieving the slurry using a muslin cloth. It was then dried for about 24 hours before it was grinded to powder.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 4.1: The result obtained for the proximate composition of maize (Ogi) fortified with sesame flour at various proportion.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This study revealed that incorporation of sesame in the production of Ogi powered produced from the maize significantly improved the qualities of the Ogi sample. This could mean that addition of sesame to Ogi could help to reduce occurrence of malnutrition in infant during child weaning instead of the use of traditional Ogi.
Inclusion of highly nutritious sesame in the production of the Ogi powder would not only increase the use of the locally grain crops. This would invariably lead to reduction in importation of instant weaning food. Further study on the functional properties and consumer pastry characteristics sample is recommended in order to increase utilization of sesame seed flour in fixed formulation.
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